Movements in the Princely States and the Freedom Struggle
a: Princely States:
- The British had established full control over whole of India by 1848.
- There were some territories which were under the Indian rulers and not under the British rule.
- Such rulers within India were forced to accept the British rule.
- The British divided the territories under their direct control into provinces.
- The territories which were under the control of Indian rulers but they were under the dominance of the British rule were called the princely states.
b: Pitiable conditions of people of Princely states:
- The people under the British provinces were given some political rights and participation in the administration after the Acts of 1919 and 1935.
- The people under the Princely States did not have the rights equal to the rights enjoyed by the British provinces.
- The rulers of princely states had imposed a number of restrictions on the rights of their subjects.
c: The National Movement in Princely States:
- The national movement in princely states started after 1920 after the non-cooperation movement which had taken place in the British provinces only.
- Under the national movement, the subjects of the princely states established people’s organisation.
- The people’s organisation started by the people of princely states for the national movement were called ‘Praja Mandals’ or ‘Praja Parishads’. The national movement in the princely states are also called Praja Mandal movements.
d: Nature of the Praja Mandal Movements:
- The people of Praja Mandal fought against the Feudalism and colonialism.
- The people of Praja Mandal movement fought against their feudal princes and the British administration simultaneously for their rights.
- The main demand of the Praja Mandal movements was the democratic rights.
e: Activities of Praja Mandal Movements:
- The people of the Praja Mandal Movements implemented the constructive programmes of the Indian National Movement in their princely states.
- They established schools, used khadi, encouraged cottage industries and started agitation against the Untouchability.
f: The National Movement Associations in Princely States:
f1: The Hitvardhak Sabha
- The Hitvardhak Sabha was founded in Poona in May 1921.
- The aim of this association was to solve the problems of the people of southern princely states.
f2: Akhil Bhor Sansthan Praja Sabha:
- Wamanrao Patwardhan founded Akhil Bhor Sansthan Praja Sabha in Bhor region in November 1921.
- The aim of this Sabha was to fight for the problems related to people of Bhor region.
f3: All India Association of the People’s Council:
- In the Bombay session of All India Association of the People’s Council in 1927, the princely states national movement was made a national level movement.
- The Bombay session of the Council demanded the responsible government and rights of citizenship for the people of Princely States.
- The Madras Session of Congress also adopted the demands of Bombay session of All India Association of People’s Council.
- In the Karachi Session of the Council in 1936, the Council rejected the clause of the 1935 Act wherein the nomination of Princes of the Princely states to the Imperial Legislature was allowed.
- The Karachi Session of the Council demanded that the right of election of representative should rest with the subjects of the princely states.
- The Council and other people’s movement also struggled for the farmers loans, taxes etc in the princely states.
g: The Liberal Prince of Aundh:
- Balasaheb Pant Pratinidhi, the ruler of Aundh was a liberal ruler.
- He formed a Representatives’ Council.
- He allowed 50% representation to the people of his state to the Council.
- In 1926, he allowed the power to legislate and to pass resolutions to the Council.
- In 1929, he declared the subjects of his states would get the right of self rule within next five years.
- He also formed a committee to frame a constitution of the modern political principles.
- His work was highly appreciated by the All India Association of People’s Council.
h: Merging of State’s Movement with the National Movement.
- The Indian National Congress joined hands with the People’s Council and made it a part of national movement.
- They worked with the aim of ending the British rule in India and integrating the princely states with India.
- As a result of the merging of the People’s movement with the national movement, the princely states integrated with the independent India after 1947.
- The important People’s movement were launched in Manipur, Travancore, Mysore and Rajkot.
- The movement for integration with India in Hyderabad was the most aggressive movement.
12. Freedom Struggle in the State of Hyderabad:
a: The State of Hyderabad:
- The State of Hyderabad was the largest princely states of India in terms of population and territory.
- The ruler of the State of Hyderabad was called the Nizam of Hyderabad.
- The State of Hyderabad included the Marathwada, parts of Andhra Pardesh and Karnatak.
- The Nizam of Hyderabad was highly supported and helped by the British administration.
b: Non-cooperation Movement and the State of Hyderabad:
- The Non-cooperation Movement also influenced the State of Hyderabad.
- The Nizam of Hyderabad crushed the non-cooperation movement and Khilafat movement in Hyderabad.
c: People’s Councils in the State of Hyderabad:
- In 1921, Andhara Sabha in Andhra Pradesh and Karnatak Council in Karnatak were founded.
- In 1937, Maharashtra Council in Marathwada was founded.
- The aim of such councils was to work in the social and the cultural spheres.
- These councils demanded responsible political system, expansion of private schools and vernacular education.
- These councils placed before the country the problems of the people inspite of the restrictions in the State of Hyderabad.
d: Role of Marathi Press:
- The Marathi press played an important role in spreading the political consciousness among the people of the State of Hyderabad.
- A. K. Waghmare played a major role in activities of the Marathi press inspite of the all the restrictions imposed by the State of Hyderabad.
e: The Rise of Hyderabad State Congress:
- The Hyderabad State Congress was founded in the State of Hyderabad in September 1938.
- The arrival of the State Congress started the first phase of the political struggle in the State of Hyderabad.
- The leaders of the State Congress declared the party as a secular, national and open to all the castes and tribes.
- The party declared the aim of communal harmony and unity as its objective.
f: Reaction of Nizam of Hyderabad towards the State Congress: (March 00)
- The Nizam of Hyderabad felt a threat from the Hyderabad State Congress.
- He banned the State Congress.
- In October 1938, Swami Ramanand Tirath launched a Satyagraha against the ban on the State Congress.
- Arya Samaj and Hindu Maha Sabha also launched a Satyagraha at the same time for their own demands in the state of Hyderabad.
- Nizam of Hyderabad was thus forced to introduce some reforms but he did not raise the ban.
- Finally in 1940, the State Congress launched the individual Satyagraha against the ban.
g: Repressive Policies of the State of Hyderabad and the Freedom Struggle: (March 00)
- The State of Hyderabad had imposed ban on the National Song ‘Vande Mataram’.
- However, the students took lead to make it a song of national freedom movement inspite of the ban. Nizam was not able to stop them.
- The students of the Government College of Aruangabad were main activists in spreading the song of Vande Mataram.
- Later the student movement was merged with the national movement and freedom struggle in the State of Hyderabad became strong.
- Govindbhai Shroff played an important role in making the freedom movement strong in Hyderabad after it had acquired momentum due to the activities of the student.
h: Hyderabad Sate Congress and Quit India Movement of 1942: (March 96)
- When the Quit India Movement of 1942 started by the Indian National Congress, the Hyderabad State Congress itself as a part of the movement.
- In August 1942 it placed following demands before the Nizam of Hyderabad:
i. Responsible government under the Nizam.
ii. Integration of the State of Hyderabad with Independent India.
iii. Grant of Civil Rights to the people of the State of Hyderabad
iv. Removal of ban on the Hyderabad State Congress in Hyderabad.
- The State Congress organised a massive Satyagraha in the State of Hyderabad.
- Many arrests were made.
- In 1946, All India Association of People’s Council also demanded from the Nizam to revoke the ban on the Hyderabad State Congress.
- By the end of the Second World War, the conditions that emerged, made the situation of the Nizam of Hyderabad very difficult.
- Finally n July 1946, the Nizam raised the ban from the Hyderabad State Congress.
13. The Movement for Integration of Hyderabad with Independent India:
a. India Became Independent:
- In 1947, India was declared independent.
- The Princely States were allowed the option to remain independent or to join with India.
- The Nizam decided to remain independent.
b: State Congress decided to merge with India:
- The Hyderabad State Congress did not accept the decision of the Nizam of Hyderabad.
- The people of Hyderabad also wanted to join the Indian federation.
- The Congress decided to observe August 7, 1947, as the day of merger.
- The people and the State Congress faced the attack of Razakar.
c: Terrorism of Razakar: (March 00)
- The decision of the Nizam to remain independent was supported by a communal organisation called ‘Ittehadul Musalmina’.
- The leader of Ittehadul Musalmina was Kasim Razavi.
- Kasim Razavi was known as Razakar.
- Razakar raised a fundamentalist armed organisation when the State Congress raised the demand of merger with India.
- The army of Razakar started terrorizing the people in the villages.
- Nizam supported the activities of Razakar and his organisations.
- Govindrao Pansare of Nanded district was killed in the attacks of Razakar.
- Shoebulla Khan a journalist was also killed by Razakar.
d: People of Hyderabad celebrated August 15, 1947:
- Inspite of the terrorism of Razakar and oppression of Nizam, the people of Hyderabad continued the agitation for merger with India.
- They established armed camps to encounter the attacks of Razakar.
- Digambarrao Bindu and Dr. Melkote headed the movement of merger.
- Swami Ramanand Tirtha was in prison.
- The people celebrated the independence of India on August 15, 1947, without caring for the repression by the Nizam of Hyderabad.