Saturday, November 13, 2010

Sabha and samiti-ugc history

Sabha and samiti-ugc history

Sabha and Samiti were the two popular assemblies existed in ancient India.In fact they played an important role in the matters of a vedic state.The Aitareya Brahmana mentions sabha but keeps silent about samiti.
The sabha is the assembly of the learned and virtuous ones .The members of sabha are nominated by the king and called sabhasad.The fuedal kings included in the RATNIS or the king makers body are also members of the sabha.According to  LUDWING the sabha represents the upper house consisting of the nobles and the priests,while samiti represents the lower house comprising the commoners.A brahmin is called sabheya or a man fit to occupies a seat in the sabha.This  asseveration of noble birth and erudition as the qualification of a member of the upper house.

Thursday, November 11, 2010

Civil Disobedience Movement
1. Background of Civil Disobedience Movement:
- In 1928 session the Congress had given an ultimatum of one year to the government to accept the demand of the Congress for constitutional reforms.
- In 1929, the British government had showed no respect to the demand of the Congress.
- The Congress decided to intensify the mass movement.
- The Congress entrusted all the powers to Mahatma Gandhi to decide the nature and time of the mass of movement.
- Mahatma Gandhi decided to start a Civil Disobedience movement as the mass movement.
2. Civil Disobedience Movement: (Oct. 96; March 98; Oct. 98)
a. Salt Satyagraha:
- The British government had monopoly over the production of Salt and collected tax on salt.
- Mahatma Gandhi decided to break the Salt law and launched the Salt Satyagraha.
b. Why Salt?
- The Salt was available in nature in abundance.
- The British government had monopoly over the Salt and collected tax over its sale.
- Salt was vital element used by every human being.
- The consumption of salt does not vary with the increase in the prices because it is an essential item of food any person.
- In case of increase of tax on salt, it badly effects the pocket of the poor people.
- The breaking of salt law would have carried message to every section of the society.
c. Events during the Dandi March:
- Dandi was a sea beach of Gujarat.
- Mahatma Gandhi started his Civil disobedience by a march with his followers from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi on March 12, 1930.
- The motive of his march was to break salt law at Dandi.
- On his way, he addressed people of numerous villages.
- He asked the people to join the civil disobedience movement fearlessly.
- His addresses spread far and wide and carried his message.
- His call was well received by the people and they joined the civil disobedience in their own regions in different manners.
- On April 5, 1930, Mahatma Gandhi reached Dandi after covering a distance of 385 kilometers.
- On April 6, 1930, Mahatma Gandhi broke the salt law at Dandi.
d. Salt Satyagraha at Other Places:
- The Salt Satyagraha was launched on the beaches of Maharashtra, Bengal, Orissa, Gujarat and Madras.
- In non-coastal regions, other laws were broken to launch Civil disobedience movement in those regions.
e. Jungle Satyagraha:
- In many regions, especially tribal population areas, the Jungle laws were broken to launch the Civil disobedience movement.
- The Jungle laws were unjust acts which interfered in the traditional forest rights of many people and effected them economically.
f. ‘No rent’ movement:
- In Uttar Pardesh, Karnataka and Gujarat, people started no rent movement to launch the Civil disobedience movement.
- Under no rent movement they refused to pay land revenue.
g. British Oppression:
- The police of British administration Lathi charged the Satygrahis at many places.
- The police even opened fired on peaceful demonstrators.
- Many Satyagrahis were arrested and prosecuted.
h. Women Participants in the Satyagraha:
- Women participated in Satyagraha and Civil disobedience movement in large numbers.
- The leading names among the major participants were Sarojini Naidu, Kamaladevi Chatopaddhyaya, Kamala Nehru, Hemprabha Das and Sucheta Kripalani.
i. Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan – Khuda-i-Khidmatgar:
- Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan belonged to North West Frontier Province.
- He organised a group called Khuda-I-Khidamtgar.
- The members of Khuda-i-Khidamtgar wore red shirts.
- Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan launched civil disobedience movement in North West Frontier Province.
- Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan was also called Frontier Gandhi.
- When British government asked its Gadhwal regiment to fire upon the followers of Gaffar Khan, they refused to fire saying that they would not fire upon their brothers.
j. Evaluation of Civil Disobedience Movement:
- Louis Fischer, an American journalist who had covered the Satyagraha had given his evaluation that if the Indian people stood up with the same fearlessness and self-respect, they would throw off the British colonial rule.
- More than ninety thousand Satyagrahis went to jail during the civil disobedience movement.
- Mahatma Gandhi was arrested on May 4, 1930.
- The participation of the workers in national movement was remarkable.
k. Protests of Mill Workers of Solapur and Mumbai:
- On May 6, 1930, the mill workers of Solapur observed hartal in protest against the arrest of Mahatma Gandhi.
- The mill workers also condemned the arrest of Mahatma Gandhi.
- The mill workers of Mumbai also protested against the arrest of Mahatma Gandhi.
- The collector of Solapur had even ordered fire on the protesting people. (March 2001)
- The martial law was also imposed at many places. (March 2001)
- The leaders like Malappa Dhanshetty, Srikrishna Sarada, Jagannath Shinde and Kurban Hussain were executed by the government.
- In Mumbai, Babu Genu sacrificed his life by throwing himself under a truck carrying imported clothes during the boycott movement against the foreign clothes in Mumbai as a protest under civil disobedience movement.
- The participation of workers was astounding.
3. A Step Forward:
- The Civil Disobedience Movement was a step forward in the struggle against the British rule.
a: Larger participation by rural and urban population:
- The urban youth had participated in large numbers in the movement.
- The peasants and urban workers had also participated in large numbers.
- The employees and businessmen had also participated in large numbers.
b: Larger participation by the women population of India.
- The women from rural and urban centers had participated in large numbers.
- It was biggest participation of women population of India in the freedom struggle of India.
c: Bigger setback to economic interests of Britain in India:
- The Civil disobedience movement gave bigger economical setback to British interests in India.
- The import of clothes from Britain declined by 50%.
- The collection of excise on liquor declines steeply.
d: A decisive Movement:
- The Civil disobedience Movement had decided one thing that the freedom of India was the foregone conclusion. It was now only the question that when would that Independence be achieved.
- It was decisive because people from all the strata of the society participated in the movement.
- Mahatma Gandhi achieved a remarkable milestone by spreading the consciousness for national freedom to the peasants, tribes and women which had made the movement a true national movement.

Tuesday, November 9, 2010

QUESTION-revolutionary terrorism
Text Book and Question Bank Questions
1A. Fill in the blanks
i. ______ founded a hostel called ‘India House’ in London. (Shyamji Krishna Varma, Lala Hardayal, Madam Bhikaji Kama)(Oct. 01)
ii. The Indian youth was persuaded for revolutionary activity through the paper “Vande Mataram” published by _____. (Aurobindo Ghosh, Bhupendranath, Khudiram Bose).
iii. _______ who also participated in the uprising of the Gadar Party, succeeded in escaping to Japan. (Rasbhihari Bose, Bhagat Singh, Vishnu Ganesh Pingle) (Oct. 96)
Match the followings
i. The assassination of Rand Damodar Chapekar
ii. The establishment of Abhinav Bharat
Association Ramprasad Bismil
iii. The establishment of Gadar Party Lala Hardayal(March 2001)
iv. Hindustan Socialist Republic Association Chandershekar Azad.
V. D. Savarkar.
Writing the following events in the chronological order. (March 97; Oct. 01)
i. Vasudeo Balwant Phadke staged armed uprising.
ii. The newspaper ‘Yugantar’ was started.
iii. Anant Kanhere was hanged.
iv. An attack was made on police armoury in Chittgaon.
2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.
i. What revolutionary activities did V. D. Savarkar do in India and abroad? (March 97)
ii. How did Gadar Party try to plan uprising in India against the British Government?
iii. How did revolutionaries bring the technique of manufacturing bombs in India?
iv. What were the political and social aims of the revolutionaries? (March 99)
3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.
i. ‘India House’ was the main centre of Indian revolutionaries in Europe.
ii. The leaders of the Meerut Conspiracy case were sentenced to various punishments.
iii. Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, and Rajguru assassinated the British officer Saunders.
iv. Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt exploded bombs in the legislature. (Oct. 97; 01) (March 99)
v. Khudiram Bose was hanged.
vi. A new Revolutionary body called Hindustan Republic Association was founded in 1924.
vii. The three Chaphekar brothers were hanged. (Oct. 98)
viii. Armed revolutionary movement became intense in Bengal in 1906.
ix. The Gadar party attempted to stage an uprising against the British Government.
x. The second Round Table Conference was unsuccessful.
4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences.
i. Give an account of the work dome by the Indian revolutionaries with the help of following points.
1. Objectives
2. Means
3. Revolutionary Organisation
Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines
1. Give a brief account of the activities of the revolutionaries in Bengal.
2. Give a brief account of the activities of the revolutionaries in foreign countries.
Other Important Examination Question
1A. Fill in the blanks
i. The Indian National Congress started the movement of _______ politics. (Constitutional, revolutionary, socialist)
ii. Sarvarkar wrote the biography of ______ and ‘The Indian War of Independence: 1857. (Mazzini, Garibaldi, George Washington).
iii. Chaphekar Brothers belonged to ______. (Maharashtra, Punjab, Bengal).
vi. In 1909, the collector f Nasik, Jackson was killed by _____. (Anant Kanhare,Khudiram Bose, Bhupendranath) (Oct. 99)
Match the followings
i. Shyamaji Krishna Varma Indian House in London.
ii. Lala Hardayal Vancouver.
iii. Senapti P. M. Bapat France.
Writing the following events in the ascending order sequence.
i. Gadar Movement
ii. Meerut Conspiracy Case
iii. Alipur Bomb Case.
2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.
i. What was the aim of Bhagat Singh to explode the Bomb in Assembly?
ii. What was the main activity of Udham Singh?
iii. Which were the main newspapers of Aurobindo Ghosh and Barinder Kumar Ghosh?
3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.
i. Bhagat Singh exploded a bomb in the Assembly.
ii. Babarao Savarkar was sent for life imprisonment in Andaman.
iii. Shyamji Krishna Varma had founded “India House”.
4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences.
i. Write about the women participation in revolutionary movement.
ii. What was the Meerut Conspiracy Case.
Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines
1. Write on the activities of the Revolutionaries in Foreign countries

Monday, November 8, 2010



1. Background of the Revolutionary Politics:
- The 1857 revolt was an armed revolt which took place on a large scale spread over a vast area and participated by different sections of Indian society.
- The 1857 armed revolt failed.
- In 1885, the Indian National Congress was founded which started a movement of constitutional politics.
- Along with constitutional politics a parallel movement of armed revolt was also active.
- The main aim of both the movements was the independence of India. One adopted the path of constitutional means and the other the path of armed movement.
2. Main features of Revolutionary Politics and means of their activities:
- The main objective of the revolutionaries was the freedom of India.
- They adopted the means of conveying their dissatisfaction with the British rule by killing the British officers.
- The killing of British officers was their protest against the unjust and oppressive British regime.
- The revolutionaries formed secret societies and worked through those secret societies to achieve their aims.
- They bought arms and weapons for their armed activities.
- They published newspapers in foreign countries to spread and say their viewpoint.
- They helped the revolutionary work in India from the foreign lands.
- The revolutionary leaders like Swatantryaveer Sarvarkar wrote books like the biography of Joseph Mazzini and the book, ‘The Indian War of Independence: 1857’. Similarly, Aurobindo Ghosh, Sachindranath Sanyal, Bhagat Singh and others also wrote similar tracts. They enthused the Indians for the armed struggle by such writings.
- They were pro-socialism, anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist. Bhagat Singh propagated a republican government and a society free from exploitation. (March. 97)
3. Revolutionaries of Maharashtra:
a. Vasudeve Balwant Phadke:
- Vasudev Balwant Phadke organised an armed revolt against the British government in 1876 in Maharashtra.
b. Chaphekar Brothers:
- Damodar Chapekar shot dead Mr. Rand, the Plague Commissioner of Poona on June 22, 1897.
- The three Chapekar brothers, Damodar, Balkrishna and Vasudev, were sentenced to death.
- The activity of Chapekar brothers was not guided by any association affiliation. However, many revolutionary associations came up in Maharashtra after the activity of Chapekar brothers.
4. The social background of the Revolutionary leaders:
- Most of the revolutionaries were educated and belonged to the middle class of India.
- They were highly influenced by the revolutionary national movements of 19th century world.
- They had visited foreign countries for higher education where they came under the influence of the ideology of revolutionary nationalism.
5. Activities of Revolutionaries in Foreign countries:
- Most of the revolutionaries had visited foreign countries for higher education.
- They pleaded for India in the foreign countries.
- They also helped the Indian revolutionary activities in India from their countries of visit.
- The leading revolutionaries who operated from foreign countries were Sardarsingh Rana, Madam Bhikaji Kama, Lala Hardyal, Dr. Pandurang Khankhoje, Raja Mahendra, Shyamaji Krishna Varma, Sarvarkar brothers, Madan Lal Dhingra etc.
b. Shyamaji Krishna Varma:
- Shyamaji Krishna Varma was settled in England.
- He gave shelter to revolutionary men who visited foreign countries especially England.
- He guided them and helped them in their revolutionary activities.
- He established a hostel called ‘India House’ in London. (March 2001)
- Even the leading revolutionary Sarvarkar when visited England, joined the India House revolutionary group.
c. Savarkar: (March 97)
- Vir Savarkar had participated and experienced the revolutionary activities in India before 1900.
- In 1900, he founded a revolutionary association called ‘Mitra Mela’ at Nashik.
- In 1904, he founded Abhinav Bharat, which spread his activities to wider region.
- Along with his Babarao Savarkar, he guided the revolutionary activities in India.
- In 1906, when he visited England, he joined and then dominated the activities of India House which had spread it activities to France also.
d. Activities of Revolutionaries from France:
- Senapti P. M. Bapat, Hemachandra Das and others who had gone to England shifted to France because of their revolutionary activities.
- Madam Kama guided their activities in France.
- In France, the Indian revolutionaries learned bomb making from the Russian revolutionaries who had taken asylum in France.
- They brought the knowledge of bomb making in India to use it against the British administration.
6. Revolutionaries of Bengal: (Oct. 97)
- In Bengal, Aurobindo Ghosh encouraged the youth towards the revolutionary activities through his paper ‘Vande Mataram’.
- Barinder Kumar Ghosh and Bhupendranath started the newspaper ‘Yugantar’ for the spread of revolutionary ideas.
- Barinder Kumar Ghosh and his associates founded revolutionary association ‘Anushilan Samiti’.
7. Bomb Culture of Revolutionaries:
- Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki were the first revolutionaries which used bomb for the first time in the struggle of Indians for freedom.
- Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki tried to kill Kingsford in Bengal. They failed in their target. Prafulla Chaki committed suicide. Khudiram Bose was sentenced to death.
- Alipur Bomb Case: The British government arrested many revolutionary on finding a bomb factory in Alipur. It became popular as Alipur Bomb Case. Babarao Savarkar was sent for life imprisonment in Andaman.
- Anant Kanhere, Karve and Deshpande were hanged to death for killing Jackson, the collector of Nashik in 1909.
- In case of killing of Magistrate Jackson, V. D. Savarkar was sentence to life-imprisonment.
- By 1910, the British government was successful in containing most of the revolutionary activities involving use of firearms.
8. Suppression of Revolutionaries by the British government: Revolutionary Movements of 1912 – 1915 (Gadar Movement):
- The revolutionary activities resurfaced in 1911.
- In December 1912, a bomb was throne on Governor-General Hardinge, when he entered Delhi on Delhi becoming the capital of British India.
- Master Amir Chand, Avadhbihari, Balmukund and Vasant Kumar were sentenced to death for throwing bomb in Delhi on the governor-general.
- Rasbihari Bose escaped the arrest. He continued his activities like in Punjab and finally reached Japan.
a. Gadar Movement:
- When the suppression of the revolutionaries in India increased, Lala Hardyal shifted to America.
- In America, Lala Hardyal organised the activities of Indians in America and Canada.
- He founded Gadar Party.
- The Gadar Party planned to raise an arm revolt in India with the help of revolutionaries in India.
- However, the British government learnt about the conspiracy of the Gadar Party in time.
- The British government hanged Vishnu Pingle, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Bakshis Singh in the case of Gadar party revolt in 1915.
- Rasbihari Bose, who had also participated in the Gadar activities, escaped to Japan.
9. Hindustan Republican Association:
- Sachindranath, Jogesh Chatterji, Ashfaq-ulla-Khan, Thakur Roshan Singh, Ramprasad Bismil, Rajendra Nath Lahiri etc founded the Hindustan Republican Association, a revolutionary body, in 1924.
- The association aimed at uprooting the British government.
- The association wanted to establish a Republic of India.
- The activist of the association were caught in the famous case of Kakori rail looting case.
10. Meerut Conspiracy Case:
- The communist had great hold on the Trade Unions of India.
- On March 20, 1929, communist leaders like S. A. Dange, Nimkar, Mirajkar Ahamd, Joglekar, Sone Batliwala, Philip Sprat were arrested.
- The communist leaders were arrested on the charge conspiracy against the British government in a communist conference held in Meerut.
- The British government prosecuted them and sentenced to various punishments. The case became famous as Meerut Conspiracy Case.
11. Hindustan Socialist Republic Association:
- Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Chandrashekar Azad, Kundanlal Gupta etc formed a revolutionary association named ‘Hindustan Socialist Republic Association in 1928.
- The aim of the association was to form a socialist and republican government in India.
a. Bhagat Singh Exploded the Bomb in the Assembly: (Oct. 97) (March 98; 00)
- The British administration proposed a bill to curtain the rights of workers and political rights of the citizens.
- The Bill also aimed at suppression anti-British movement.
- Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt exploded bomb in the legislature. (Oct. 01; March 00)
- In October 1929, Lala Lajpat Rai succumbed to his injuries received during the Lathi charge on demonstrations against the Simon Commission.
- Saunders, the British officers who had ordered the Lathi charge was shot dead.
- The shooting of Saunders was blamed on Bhagat Singh and he was arrested while he was throwing un-harming bombs in the assembly.
- In 1931, Bhagat Singh hanged to death.
- Chandrashekhar Azad also died in an encounter with the British police.
12. Chittgaon Armory Looting Case: Women Revolutionaries:
- In April 1930, the revolutionaries in Bengal looted an armory in Chittgaon.
- In this robbery case, latter Suraysen and Tarakeshwar Dutt were hanged.
- Ganesh Ghosh, Kalpana Dutt were sentenced to life imprisonment.
a. Pritilata Waddedar:
- In 1932, Pritilata Waddedar killed an officer in the Officer’s club.
b. Shanti Ghosh and Suniti Chaudhari:
- Shanti Ghosh and Suniti Chaudhari, who were school going girls killed the district Magistrate of Komilla.
c. Veena Das:
- In 1932, during the convocation ceremony of Calcutta university, Veena Das shot at the Governor of Bengal.
13. Revolutionary of Punjab- Udham Singh:
- General Michel O’dwayer had ordered the killing of Jallianwalla Baugh.
- In 1940, Udham Singh killed Michel O’dwayer.
Facts and Figures to Remember
1. Background of the Revolutionary Politics:
Revolt of 1857 was revolutionary activity. Revolutionary movement revived with the rise of INC in 1885 with an aim of complete independence of India.
2. Features and Means of Revolutionary Politics:
Main objective was the complete freedom of India.
The means included the killing of the oppressive British officers, formation of secret societies, use arms and ammunition, publish newspapers in foreign countries, use print media for the spread of Indian nationalism, propagate ideas of socialism, anti-capitalism and anti-imperialism.
3. Revolutionaries in Maharashtra: Vasudeve Balwant Phadke, Chaphekar Brothers.
4. Social Background of Revolutionary Leaders:
They were from educated middle class. Under the influence of revolutionary national movements of the world.
5. Revolutionaries in Foreign countries: Sardarsingh Rana, Madam Bhikaji Kama, Lala Hardyal, Dr. Pandurang Khankhoje, Raja Mahendra, Shyamaji Krishna Varma, Sarvarkar brothers, Madan Lal Dhingra etc. Senapti P. M. Bapat, Hemachandra Das, Madam Kama etc were active in France.
6. Revolutionaries in Bengal: Aurbindo Ghosh, Barinder Kumar Ghosh, Bupendranath etc.
7. Bomb Culture of Revolutionaries: Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki were first to use the bomb in the service of freedom struggle. Alipur Bomb Case, Nasik Bomb Case, British took successful strict steps against Bomb culture.
8. British reaction to Revolutionary activities and Gadar Movement:
Viceroy escaped bomb during new wave of revolutionary movement in 1911, Rasbihari Bose continued such activities in Punjab and Japan and ultimately established INA with Subash Chandra Bose. Gadar Movement in Punjab tried to carry the armed revolt.
9. Hindustan Republican Association: Started in 1924 and aimed at uprooting British government. Famous for Kakori rails looting.
10. Meerut Conspiracy Case: It was a conspiracy case against the communist leaders like Dange etc in 1929.
11. Hindustan Socialist Republic Association:
Formed in 1928 and famous for Chandershekar Azad, Bhagat Singh
12. Chittgaon Armory Looting Case and Women Revolutionaries:
It took place in 1930 in Bengal. It is known for women activist like Kalpana Dutt. Other revolutionary women were Pritilata Waddedar, Shanti Ghosh, Suniti Chaudhari, Veena Das etc.
13. Udham Singh- Revolutionary of Punjab:
In 1940, Udham Singh killed Michel O’dwayer who had ordered Jallianwalla Baugh massacre.