Thursday, December 16, 2010


1A. Fill in the blanks
i. _________ provided the leadership to the underground movement in Quit India Movement. (Jay Parkash Narayan, Acharya Narendra Dev, Dr. Lohia)
ii. _______ raised the Indian National Army. (Subash Chandra Bose, Rasbihari Bose, Lala Hardayal) (Oct. 97; Oct. 99)
iii. The Act of 1935 granted _____. (Dominion Status, Complete Independence, Provincial autonomy)
iv. ________ was chosen as the first Satyagrahi for the Individual Satyagraha. (Acharya Vinoba Bhave, Jawahar Lal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel)
v. Azad Hind government was established by ______. (Subash Chandra Bose, Rasbihari Bose, Lala Hardayal) (March 00)
Match the followings
i. Jawahar Lal Nehru Faizpur Session of Indian National Congress
ii. Netaji Subash Chandra Bose ‘Rani of Jhansi’ Regiment
iii. Dr. Lakshmi Swaminathan The Naval Mutiny in Mumbai
iv. B. C. Dutt The Naval Mutiny in Karachi
Azad Hind Government.
b. (March 97)
i. Midnapur Maharashtra
ii. Balia Orissa
iii. Talcher Uttar Pardesh
iv. Satara Madhya Pardesh

Writing the following events in chronological order. (Oct. 98)
i. Cripps Mission
ii. Individual Satyagraha
iii. The provincial Congress ministries resigned
iv. Establishment of Azad Hind Government.
2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.
i. Why did Indian National Congress decide to take part in the elections held under the 1935 Act?
ii. What was Jawahar Lal Nehru’s demand at the Ramgarh session of the Indian National Congress in 1940?
iii. Why did Subash Chandra Bose decide to go to Japan from Germany? (Oct. 96; 99; 01)
iv. What was Subash Chandra Bose’s view regarding the British policy at the out break of the World War II?
v. Give details about the implementation of programmes of public welfare done by the provincial Congress Ministries. (Oct. 98) (March 2001)
3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.
i. The Indian officers and ratings on the British warship ‘Talwar’ in Mumbai mutinied.
ii. The ‘Indian National Congress rejected the Cripps’ proposal. (March 96) (Oct. 97)
iii. The British Government kept Subhash Babu under house arrest.
iv. Indian National Army failed in the freedom struggle.
v. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose decided to go to Japan from Germany. (March 2001)
vi. The British Government cancelled the sentence of the INA officers.
vii. The Indian Congress at Faizpur was significant.
viii. The Congress Ministries in the provinces resigned at the end of 1939. (Oct. 97)
ix. Congress Ministries resigned on November 1, 1939. (March 00)
x. The British Prime Minister sent Sir Strafford Cripps to India in 1942.
xi. The Congress and the Muslim League rejected the Cripps Proposals. (March 96) (Oct. 97)
4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences.
i. What were the changes brought about in Indian administration in accordance with 1935 Act?
ii. What measures were taken by the British government to suppress the ‘Quit India’ Movement?
iii. What demands did the peasants put before the Faizpur Congress Session?
iv. State the main features of the Faizpur Congress Session.
v. Mention the work of the underground leaders during the ‘Quit India’ Movement?
vi. What was the “The Cripps Mission Plan?”
vii. State the provisions of the Act of 1935.
Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines
i. Give an account of the Salt Satyagraha with the help of the following points.
1) Reasons for launching of Salt Satyagraha.
2) Places where Salt Satyagraha was launched.
3) Women’s participation.
ii. Mention the contribution of Azad Hind Sena (Indian National Army) with the help of the following points. (March 2001)
1) Background of the foundation of the Azad Hind Sena.
2) Struggle of Azad Hind Sena.
3) The retreat of Azad Hind Sena.
iii. Describe the movement of 1942 with the help of the given points.
1) The resolution of the Congress Working Committee.
2) Quit India Resolution.
3) People’s participation.
iv. Write a note on the Indian National Army with the help of the given points.
1) Foundation of the Indian National Army.
2) Work of Indian National Army.
3) Imprisonment of the Indian National Army’s officers.
4) The Trial of Indian National Army officer.
v. Give a detailed account of the 1942 Quit India Movement with the help of the following points. (March. 97)
1) Background of the Movement.
2) Quit India Resolutions.
3) The work of the underground leaders.
vi. State the contribution of Netaji Subash Chandra Bose to the Indian Freedom struggle.
1) Establishment of Forward Block.
2) Establishment of the Azad Hind Government.
3) Contribution to the Freedom Struggle.
vii. Give an account of “Indian National Army” with the help of the following points. (March 99)
1) Foundation of the Indian National Army.
2) Contribution of Indian National Army.
3) Participation of people
4) Failure of Indian National Army.
5) Trial of INA officers and soldiers.
viii. Mention the contribution of Subash Chandra Bose in India’s Freedom Movement with the help of the following points.
1) Role of Netaji in World War II.
2) His Organisational work.
3) Contribution of Azad Hind Sena.
ix. Give an account of the “Quit India” movement of 1942 with the help of following points. (March 97; Oct. 01)
1) The objectives of the Movement. (Oct. 98)
2) “Quit India’ resolution.
3) Main events of the Movement.
x. Mention the contribution of Subash Chandra Bose in India’s freedom movement with the help of the following points.
1) Foundation of Azad Hind Sena.
2) Slogans and work.
3) Participation of the masses.
xi. Write about the clauses of Government of India Act 1935. 

Wednesday, December 15, 2010




The Hindu attitude to life and daily conduct is oriented towards four noble ends of man.these four nobles ends are exemplified in the Hindu dharmashastras as the “purusharthas”.the concept of puruushartha is the fundamental principle of the Indian social ethics.the word purushathas implies attainments or life purposes.according to this concept ,the aim of every person is to attain four noble ends or purusharthas.they are ARTH,DHARMA,KAMA AND MOKSHA.these purusharthas govern the Hindu view of life.they are the guiding principle of life for the Hindus at all stages of their life.the entire Hindu social organization is built on the foundation of the prusharthas.

Importance of purusharthas

1-purusharthas signify the hindu attitude towards life.

2-Harmony between the material and the supreme.

3-Coordination among various desires ,needs and interest.

4-No attempt to decry sex and disregard material aspirations.

5-It constitute the basis of varnasrama dharma. 

DHARMA(the principle of righteousness)

Dharma is the supreme principle of is the major end in humans life.the word dharma is derived from the Sanskrit root DHRI meaning to hold together ,to sustain or to holds together the whole is essential for maintaining the stability of Dr.Radhakrishnan has pointed out “every form of life ,every group of men has its dharma which is the law of its beings.dharma or virtue is conformity with the truth of things,adharma,rice,is opposed to it”.gita ,veda,upanishads equated dharma with rta or truth and treated it as a cosmic principle .

From the point of view of mimasa philosophy ‘dharma means moral code of conduct to be observed by all human beings in every sphere of the is activity and it holds good for all times to come.dharmashastras also insists upon on the universal form of was intended to enable man to reach was deemed to be the goal human existence.

To mahbharatha “dharma is created for the well being of all creation”.dharma is not a is a living is the guiding principle of life,a complete rule of leads way towards ultimate reality.dharma is often connected with happiness and liberation.scholars have spoken different types of dharma like SAMANYA,RAJA,STREE,VARNA,ASHRAMA,ETC.vedas constitute main source of dharma.  


The term ‘artha refers to wordily prosperity such  as wealth and is acquiring wealth by honest man.A man is unable to conduct his life so long as the material means of living are not available.Without artha no desire(kama)can be satisfied.Poverty is no ideal.Economic stability is the basis of social stability,individual advancement and spiritual attainment. The pleasure of giving charity comes only when there is something to give.Hence artha or wealth helps to sustain and enrich life.
The importance of wealth in this world was fully raised by koudilya.To him wealth is the basis of human requirements and that social well being  depends ultimately on material prosperity.To Manu”the whole vedas constitute the first source of artha”.The practice of virtuous men,smritis,the truth are other source of artha.

KAMA(pleasure or desires)

Kama refers to the desires in man for enjoyment and satisfaction of the life of the senses.It refers to some of the innate desires and urges in man.It springs human mind,the moment one is born.It is the essence of life.With the passing of the time desires increased.These desires influence and determine social action in many ways.Without it living would appear to be very cruel and meaningless.The theory of purusharthas makes sufficient provision for the enjoyment of life.
Kama involves sexual,emotional and aesthetic life.The healthy development of personality calls for the expression of emotions.Kama represents such an emotional expression.It is often regarded as one of the six enemies if human beings.But it is equally true that human being cannot continue as a race without the realisation of kama which helps the propagation of species.

MOKSHA(liberation or spiritual freedom)

Moksha is the ultimate aim.When the end of human action is salvation or liberation from the bondage of the world ,it is called moksha.It is the supreme aspiration of man.All our activities are directed to the realization of this end.The trivargas (arth,darma.kama) are the means for the attainment of this supreme end.Moksha is alone called Chaturvarga.Through meditation,knowledge,devotion and correct action,moksha or salvation can attain.

Tuesday, December 14, 2010

RTA-rita -ugc,jrf and net history

Rta means true,proper,right and honest in an ordinary sense.In the Vedas ,it has various  meanings.It stands for truth,eternal laws ,cosmic order ,water ,yajna etc.Sayanacharya in his commentary usually interpret it to mean “water”,sun,sacrifice,while european scholars take it in the sense of divine truth and faith etc.The great vedist Dayananda Saraswathi interpreted the word in the sense;true knowledge,eternal causes;what stands in conformity to cosmic order ,the veda,the eight proof of reasoning ,one's own experience,and consciousness,GOD,time,sun,air,atoms and perseverance.Word rta occur 120 times in rigveda ,14 times in yajurveda,43 in samaveda, and 22 in atharva veda.
Brahmanas explains the word in various senses and some of them are truth,sun,fire,universe,mind god and the act which enable one to enjoy unworldly freedom and happiness.To mr.Maurice Bloomfield “rta is unquestionably the best conception that has been elaborated by the aryans”.
As the basis of cosmic order the rta rules the world and nature.The events of the nature that recur periodically are fixed or regulated by rta.The proper order of a sacriface is also is called rta.In man’s activity the rta manifests itself as a moral law(varuana is the real trustee of the rta).The two fold aspects of rta are cosmic order and moral conduct of man.



 It was basically an order issued by an officer to his subordinate during the Mughal period of India history. It was more significant when such an order was issued by departmental heads such as Diwan-i-ala or Sadr-u-Sudur endorsing a grant of a jagir or madad massh land. Generally, it was an order for a higher authority to its subordinate which demanded execution. 


Farman was a royal order bearing the seal of the emperor during the Mughal period of Indian history. Every piece of official document was not a farman. A farman was an order directly from the Emperor.


As per the Persian documents of the Medieval India, Muqaddam was a headman of a village. He was ,by profession, a peasant of the village which he headed. He could sell and buy land for the village and settle the common treasury of the village in that position. His position was hereditary, however, it could also be bought and sold. He was never a government servant but a person holding that position could be dispossessed of his status by the revenue official.

In south India (Dakhin), a similar position was enjoyed by a ‘Patel’.

In Braj documents, the same Muqaddam was translated as ‘Panch’ or ‘panch mukadam’.


The Sociologists define a caste as follows:
A caste is a hereditary, endogamous, usually localized group, having a traditional association with an occupation and a particular position in the local hierarchy of castes. The relations between castes are governed, among other things, by the concepts of pollution and purity, and generally, maximum commensality occurs within the caste.

On spatial level, a caste is usually segmented into several sub-castes and each sub-caste is endogamous. This segmentation is probably the result of a long historical process in which groups continually fissioned off. As a result of this long process of development there has come into existence several cognate groups usually found scattered over a limited geographical region, each of which retains a sense of identity as well as its linkage with other similar groups. Hence, a perception that a caste has its limited social boundaries is limited view meant for a particular time and place only. It, under historic impact, keeps changing the social boundaries and even the spatial spread through the process of historic fission.


Butler Committee was headed by Harcourt Butler. It was appointed by Viceroy of India, Irwin. It reviewed the question of Paramountcy. The Princes of India wanted to review the issue of Paramountcy while bargaining for their participation in Round Table Conference where the British government wanted them to be. Butler concluded, "Paramoutcy must remain paramount."
The judgement of the committee was not in favour of the Council of Princes. However, the main fear of the Princes was that if the Dominion Status was imparted to India, then there could a central government dominated by the Congress members. However, later, as the talks progressed, the idea of Federal government at centre was favoured and the issue of Dominion Status was just made silent. The features which were suggested under the Federal Structure in India were such that the Princes did not have to fear the Congress majority control at centre level.


Delhi Statement was issued by Gandhi on November 2, 1928.
In tghe statement it was sugested that the proposed conference which Simon Commission was expected to propose would disciss the features of Dominion Status, in the conference, the Congress delegates would have majority and there would be discussed general amnesty and concilliation.
Gandhi met Irwin, the Viceroy of India of that time on November 23, 1928. The Viceroy rejected the offer given in 'Delhi Statement'.
Later, Gandhi signed Gandhi Irwin Pact in which the above offer were not taken up.


During the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920-21, the Moplahs in Malabar region also responded to the call of Gandhi for non-cooperation. The contemporary British government in India tried to suppress the rising with repression. It lead to numerous death. It was then, that 66 asphyxiated bodies of Moplah prisoners were found shut in a railway wagon. Some historians have termed it as Padanur Black Hole equating it to Black Hole Tregady of Fort Williams at Calcutta in 1757 reported by Dr. Holwell wherein 144 British people died when they were put in 18 feet by 14 feet room. In that incidence, it was reported that nearly 38 of them survived.


The Anti-Non-Cooperation Association 1920 was started by big businessmen of Bombay in 1920 against the Non-Cooperation/Khilafat Movement (1920-1921). It was established by Jamnadas Dwarkadas, Purshottamdas Thaukrdass, Cowasji Jehangir, Pheroze Sethna and Setalvad. The businessmen of Bombay felt that the movement would encourage the labour strikes which in Bombay Presidency turned out be violent at earlier occasion. Secondly, Gandhi did not have that acceptance in Maharashtra region which at that time was still remembered Bal Gangadhar Tilak.


Samitis Movement is also called national volunteer movement (Do not confuse it with Rashtriya Swyam Sang). It started somewhere before the Swadeshi Movement which was basically an Anti-Bengal Partition Movement. The membership of Smitis increased with the rise of Swadeshi Movement. They were mainly open bdoies engaged in phusical and moral trainings of the youth of Bengal. They also participated in numerous social welfare activities expecially during antural calamities like spread of epidemics or famines.

According to a police report of 1907, there were 19 Samitis in Clcautta. However, such associations were more active in East Bengal. Accoerding to another police report of June 1907, there were 8485 members voerall, associated with different Samities in East Bengal.

Some of the main Samitis were Anti Circular Soceity of Clacutta, Barisal Swadeshi Bandhave of Aswinkumar Dutt having 170 village branches by 1909, Dacca Anusilan of Pulin Das etc.
Some historians have termed their activities as terrorist activities. It is against the craft of history to transport a concept of one time over to other time. Terrorism as a tool in hands of anomly groups and paradigm belongs to 1960s when the Muslim Brotherhood activities increased the use of arms and bombs. Hence, it is wrong to term the activities before that period in concept of paradigms which developed latter.


Doctrine of Passive Resistance is authored by Aurobindo Ghosh. It is based on a series of articles by Aurobindo Ghosh which were published in April 1907 in the journal Bande Matram. The articles were written when the Bengal was burning with indignation after its partition October 16, 1905 by Viceroy Curzon. The main theme of the articles is the methods and ideology which could be adopted in face of oppression and injustice as perpetrated by the contemporary British rule in India


Dawn Society was established by Satishchandra Mukherji during the Swadeshi Movement against the partition of Bengal during the tenure of Lord Curzon as the Viceroy of the British Indian Empire. It was a progressive and constructive response different from the mendicant methods of protests of the Moderates generally identified with the members of the Indian National Congress. Under the society, Satishchandra Mukherji started educational institutions which aimed at imparting education to the Indians who were encouraged to leave the government or government aided schools and colleges as a protest against the parititon of Bengal.

Louis Dane's Mission:
Louis Dane's Mission was a diplomatic mission to Afghanistan under direction of Lord Curzon who Viceroy of India. India was under the imperial rule of Great Britain. It was an attempt of Viceroy of India to direct the foreign policy around South Asia from Calcutta, which was seat of power in British Indian Empire.


It was a pioneer agrarian movement in the Mewar State in present Udaipur District.

The Jagirdar of Bijolia was a Parmar Rajput having 96 villages in his jagir. There were 86 different taxes on peasants against which peasants revolted in 1905. The initial leadership was provided by Sitaram Das. The movement got linked to national movement. Vijay (Bijoy) Singh Pathik and Manik Lal Verma (future Chief Minister of Rajasthan) led a no tax movement in 1916. It was called Bijolia movement. The peasants refused to do begar and held back the taxes. The movement continued through 1920s and spread over to other States of Rajputana.

Important note: The no tax movement at Bijolia took place before the Champaran Indigo Satyagraha of Gandhi. Secondly, it was started in Princely States. 



The Shadhdarshana means the six Doctrines or the Six systems of Salvation or the Six Schools of Philosophies of Hinduism. They are as follows.
Sr. no
Name of the Doctrine
Name of the Rishi/Apostle
Akshapada Gautama
Vaisheshika: Doctrine of Individual Charateristics
Uluka Kanada
Sankhya: The Count
Yoga: Now Most popular in West as a school of physical disciplining
Mimansa: Enquiry
Vedanta, also Uttara Mimansa


Vedangas are treatises which form the part of Vedic literature. They are six in number. The etymological meaning of Vedanga means limbs of Vedas. It suggests that they are helpful in understanding the Vedas. It is written by an established scholar that ‘the study of Vedanga was necessary either for the reading, the understanding, or the proper sacrificial employment of the Veda.’ Hence, these six limbs or the six treatise or the six subjects are necessary for fully understanding the Vedas which are Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sam Veda and Atharva Veda.

Further, R. C. Majumdar, specifically emphasis that they should not be taken as mere six books but the six subjects which are to be understood to appreciate the contents of the Vedas. It should be further remembered that they are treatises. It means that they are work of the intellect and memory of human beings. They are product of the use of human faculties.

These six treatises are:
1.               Sikhsha (pronunciation)
2.             Chhandas (metre)
3.             Vyakarana (grammar)
4.             Nirukta (explanation of words; etymology)
5.              Jyotisha (astronomy {Kindly note, not the astrology as it is generally believed. That is other thing, that it is latter used for astrology far more than for executing Vedic ceremonies.})
6.             Kalpa (ceremonial).

R. C. Majumdar has emphasised that
the first two are considered necessary for reading the Veda, the two next for understanding it, and the last two for employing it at sacrifices.

Therefore, it means that Sikhsha and Chhandas, that are metre and grammar are used for reading the Veda. They are used merely for reading. The Vyakrana and Nirukta, that are grammar and etymology, are used for understanding the Vedas. Finally, Jyotisha and Kalpa, that are astronomy and ceremonial involve the operational aspect, action aspect, the activity aspect of the Vedas.

According to Anguttara Nikaya, a Buddhist source, the followings were the sixteen Mahajanapadas.
1.               Anga
2.             Magadha
3.             Kashi
4.             Kosala
5.              Vajji
6.             Malla
7.              Chedi
8.             Vatsa
9.             Kuru
10.      Panchala
11.         Matsya
12.       Sursena
13.       Assaks
14.       Avanti
15.        Gandhara
16.       Kamboja

According to Bhagwati Sutra, a Jain Source, the followings were the sixteen Mahajanapadas.
1.               Anga
2.             Banga (Vanga)
3.             Magadha
4.             Malaya
5.              Malava
6.             Achchha
7.              Vachcha
8.             Kachchha
9.             Padhan (Pandy) (Vatsa)
10.      Ladha (Lata)
11.         Sajji (Vajji)
12.       Moli (Malla)
13.       Kasi
14.       Kosala
15.        Avaha
16.       Sambhuttara

Anglo French Conflict in India-Indian Independence Committee 1915-Shyamj-Rashbehari Bosei Krishnavarma

Anglo French Conflict in India

In eighteenth century India, English and French trading companies competed and fought with each other in India for the control over the trade and political power in India. It is generally called the Anglo French Conflict in India.

The conflict between English and French Trading companies went through four phases. In first three phases, the trading companies of France and England fought three wars on the land of India. Those three wars are recorded in Indian history as three Karnataka war or merely Karnataka wars. The first Karnataka War was fought between 1746 and 1748. It ended with Aix-la Chapella treaty which was signed between England and France in 1748 in Europe. The second Karnataka war was fought between 1749 and 1754. It ended in the Treaty of Pondicherry signed in 1754. The third Karnataka war was fought between 1758 and 1763. It ended with the Treaty of Peace of Paris.
In the fourth phase, which extended from 1778 to 1815, the French tried to eliminate the British by helping the native rulers like of Nizam of Hyderabad, Tipu of Mysore and the Maratha Chiefs by training their armies on the European model. The French officers also tried to train the army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Lahore.
The above contest or conflict must be understood in context of the European history. Britain and France did not have good relations between them on European continent. However, the European trading companies trading in India being ruled by Mughals, especially the French and British companies, maintained very cordial relations among themselves in India while trading. They readily cooperated and coordinated in their trading activities over the Indian land. However, during Karnataka war, the British and French trading compaies fought when France and Britain fought in Europe. Secondly, all through the period of Karnataka war, though they had actively interfere in Indian and Mughal court politics, they remained under the hollow of the might of the Mughals. It was only after Battle of Buxar, the English Company became confident of itself. By then, it had already beaten the French company in India.

The Karnataka wars established that among the European trading countries in India, England Trading company was supreme.

Indian Independence Committee 1915

The Indian Independence Committee was formed by Indian revolutionaries who were working for the independence of India from the foreign countries. It was formed in 1915 in Berlin when the World War First was going on. It was formed to make arrangements to help the revolutionaries within India to fight the British administration. It is believed that it was being supported by German foreign office under the ‘Zimmerman Plan’. The leading members of the committee was Viendranath Chattopadhyay (Chatto), Bhupen Dutta, Lala Har Dayal Verma and others. It is more popular as Berlin Committee of Indian Independence in history text books in India.

  The historians evaluate the forming of the Indian Independence Committee as one of the two main responses of the Indians patriots. In this case, it was the response of the revolutionaries for whom the starting of World War had given an opportunity to push out Britain out India. The second response was represented by Home Rule Movement, which ultimately favoured helping the British efforts in the world war and then latter use it for negotiation for getting political rights for Indians within India. In case of the activities of the revolutionaries with operational centre in foreign countries, they are generally shown as conspiracies. However, the Indian historians have not gone beyond that. After suggesting that they were part of some conspiracy, they have not taken conspiracy theories thesis to their logical conclusions. No doubt, they can not escape the responsibility of suggesting that though there had been conspiracies yet such acts had also contributed to the Indian freedom struggle. As a result apart from Indian Independence Committee fact, the Ghadrites, the Hindu Conspiracy Case 1918, Provincial Government of Free India at Kabul etc are all treated in that manner.

Indian Sociologist

Indian Sociologist was a journal started by Shyamji Krishanvarma.

Shyamji Krishnavarma

Shyamji Krishnavarma undertook his freedom struggle against the colonial rule of Britain over India while staying in London. He basically advocated a theory of passive resistance. However, he was surrounded by or got associated with such young people from India who preferred radical means of removing Britain from India.

  Shimaji Krishnavarma started a journal called Indian Sociologist. He also established a centre for Indian students which was called India House. He also started the Indian Home Rule Society. V. D. Savarkar and Madanlal Dhingra were also assocaited with India House along with other leading revolutionary Indians. However, in later studies, the act of Madanlal Dhingra of klleing Curzon Wyllie an officer who had worked in Amritsar, had been shown to have taken place under influence of drugs and thereby project the activities promoted under Shyamji Krishnavarma in dark colours.

Sachindranath Sanyal (Sachindra Nath Sanyal)

Sachindranath Sanyal was an Indian revolutionary who fought against the colonial rule of Britain over India. He organized secret revolutionary associations over North India with centres in Punjab, Delhi and United Province. He was able to establish contacts with foreign countries for his activities. He worked with Rashbehari Bose. He was believed to be associated with the bombing of the convy of Viceroy Hardinge when he was entering the new Capital at Delhi on December 23, 1912.

Rashbehari Bose

Rashbehari Bose was the Indian revolutionary who fought against the colonial rule of Britain in India. He organized secret revolutionary societies which had even international contacts. His activities were spread over Northern India covering Punjab, Delhi and United Province. He was associated with Sachindranath Sanyal in such activities. He was believed to be associated with the bombing of the convy of Viceroy Hardinge when he was entering the new Capital at Delhi on December 23, 1912.

Ali Brothers
Ali Brothers in Indian history for the Freedom Struggle period refers to Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. They were from United Province. They promoted radical views in Muslim League. They were identified with the Young Party of Muslim League which dominated the Muslim League from 1912. They promoted militant methodology to remove the Imperial rule of Britain over India. They favoured a workable accommodation with nationalist Hindus. They worked for pan-Islamic Movement. They started Khilafat Movement
Shimla Depatation 1906

On October 1, 1906, a group of Muslim representatives of Muslim elite of United Province and specifically from Aligarh, met the Viceroy Minto at Shimla. They sought separate electorates and representation in excess of numerical strength in view of their loyalty towards the defence of the Crown Empire in India.Soon afterwards, in the month of December 1906, Muslim League was founded by Salimulla and the members of the deputation was found dominating the working of the Muslim League.Special Note: Some of the books in India identify Shimla Deputation with Muslim League deputation. It is not correct to present it in that manner. It is important to note that when the deputation met, there was no Muslim League party in existence as such. The deputation met in June 1906. The party was formed in December 1906.

Monday, December 13, 2010


Here are some of the tips and techniques to score well in UGC NET examination. Follow them at the best. Good Luck.
1. Writing skills matter a lot in the NET Examination. Most of the candidates appearing for the NET examination have a lot of knowledge, but lack writing skills. You should be able to present all the information/knowledge in a coherent and logical manner, as expected by the examiner. For example: Quoting with facts and substantiating your answer with related concepts and emphasizing your point of view.
2. Preparations for NET examination should be done intensively.
3.After deciding the questions one should sort out the NET question papers according to the syllabus topics. If one analyses these questions, after sometime the questions are repeated in one form or the other.
4. Prepare a standard answer to the question papers of the previous years. This will also make your task easy at the UGC examination.
5. Do Not miss the concepts. Questions asked are of the Masters level examination. Sometimes the questions are ‘conceptual’ in nature, aimed at testing the comprehension levels of the basic concepts.
6. Get a list of standard textbooks from the successful candidates, or other sources and also selective good notes. The right choice of reading material is important and crucial. You should not read all types of books as told by others.
7. Always target for writing section even while preparing for objective questions. As there is much in common for study and there is little time for preparation for the wriiten part II examination.
8. While studying for the subjects, keep in mind that there is no scope for selective studies in UGC. The whole syllabus must be covered thoroughly. Equal stress and weight should be given all the sections of the syllabus.
9. Note that in the ultimate analysis both subjects carry exactly the same amount of maximum marks.
10. For subjects like Mathematics and Statistics and Geography maps etc, practice is very important. One should also practice other subjects and should not treat the same examination, as an “experience gathering” exercise to get a chance for writing mains is a great thing, which you may not get again.
11. Go through the unsolved papers of the previous papers and solve them to stimulate the atmosphere of the examination.
12. Stick to the time frame. Speed is the very essence of this examination. Hence, time management assumes crucial importance.
13. For developing the writing skills, keep writing model answers while preparing for the NET examination. This helps get into the habit of writing under time pressure in the Mains examination.
14. Never be over confident with your writing skills. It is too subjective and behavioral.
15. Develop and follow your own style of writing. Try not to be repetitive and maintain a flow in the style of your writing.
16. Never try to imitate others in the style of writing.
17. Sequential and systematic style of answering comes after a lot of practice and analysis of standard answers.
18. Try to stimulate the actual examination hours to judge the performance and to plug any loopholes.
19. Try not to exceed the word limit, as far as possible. Sticking to the word limit that will save time. Besides, the number of marks you achieve are not going to increase even if you exceed the word limit. It’s the quality that matters not the quantity.
20. Revision of subjects is very important. The reason is that you have been preparing for months or years together. It is a human tendency to forget something after some time.
21. Donot bother yourselves if you are unable to revise everything before examination. Write it legibly as it will simplify the evaluator’s task and he can read the answers easily.
22. Highlight the important points which are important.
23. Follow paragraph writing rather than essay form. A new point should start with a new paragraph.
24. If the question needs answer in point format give it a bullet format.
25. Keep sufficient space between two lines.
26. Try to maintain uniformity in your writing throughout the paper.
27. Under time pressure, the script should not go from bad to worse in the later stages of the answer sheets. This may irritate the evaluator.
28. Don’t count words after every answer. If you have practiced well you should reflexively know the approximate limit you made.
29. Give space and divide it by a dividing line between two questions.
30. Above all be patient and believe in God