Thursday, December 23, 2010



Here are some of the tips and techniques to score well in UGC NET examination. Follow them at the best. Good Luck.

1. Writing skills matter a lot in the NET Examination. Most of the candidates appearing for the NET examination have a lot of knowledge, but lack writing skills. You should be able to present all the information/knowledge in a coherent and logical manner, as expected by the examiner. For example: Quoting with facts and substantiating your answer with related concepts and emphasizing your point of view.

2. Preparations for NET examination should be done intensively.

3.After deciding the questions one should sort out the NET question papers according to the syllabus topics. If one analyses these questions, after sometime the questions are repeated in one form or the other.

4. Prepare a standard answer to the question papers of the previous years. This will also make your task easy at the UGC examination.

5. Do Not miss the concepts. Questions asked are of the Masters level examination. Sometimes the questions are ‘conceptual’ in nature, aimed at testing the comprehension levels of the basic concepts.

6. Get a list of standard textbooks from the successful candidates, or other sources and also selective good notes. The right choice of reading material is important and crucial. You should not read all types of books as told by others.

7. Always target for writing section even while preparing for objective questions. As there is much in common for study and there is little time for preparation for the wriiten part II examination.

8. While studying for the subjects, keep in mind that there is no scope for selective studies in UGC. The whole syllabus must be covered thoroughly. Equal stress and weight should be given all the sections of the syllabus.

9. Note that in the ultimate analysis both subjects carry exactly the same amount of maximum marks.

10. For subjects like Mathematics and Statistics and Geography maps etc, practice is very important. One should also practice other subjects and should not treat the same examination, as an “experience gathering” exercise to get a chance for writing mains is a great thing, which you may not get again.

11. Go through the unsolved papers of the previous papers and solve them to stimulate the atmosphere of the examination.

12. Stick to the time frame. Speed is the very essence of this examination. Hence, time management assumes crucial importance.

13. For developing the writing skills, keep writing model answers while preparing for the NET examination. This helps get into the habit of writing under time pressure in the Mains examination.

14. Never be over confident with your writing skills. It is too subjective and behavioral.

15. Develop and follow your own style of writing. Try not to be repetitive and maintain a flow in the style of your writing.

16. Never try to imitate others in the style of writing.

17. Sequential and systematic style of answering comes after a lot of practice and analysis of standard answers.

18. Try to stimulate the actual examination hours to judge the performance and to plug any loopholes.

19. Try not to exceed the word limit, as far as possible. Sticking to the word limit that will save time. Besides, the number of marks you achieve are not going to increase even if you exceed the word limit. It’s the quality that matters not the quantity.

20. Revision of subjects is very important. The reason is that you have been preparing for months or years together. It is a human tendency to forget something after some time.

21. Donot bother yourselves if you are unable to revise everything before examination. Write it legibly as it will simplify the evaluator’s task and he can read the answers easily.

22. Highlight the important points which are important.

23. Follow paragraph writing rather than essay form. A new point should start with a new paragraph.

24. If the question needs answer in point format give it a bullet format.

25. Keep sufficient space between two lines.

26. Try to maintain uniformity in your writing throughout the paper.

27. Under time pressure, the script should not go from bad to worse in the later stages of the answer sheets. This may irritate the evaluator.

28. Don’t count words after every answer. If you have practiced well you should reflexively know the approximate limit you made.

29. Give space and divide it by a dividing line between two questions.

30. Above all be patient and believe in God


Tuesday, December 21, 2010


1A. Fill in the blanks
i. In June 1945, an All Party Conference was organised in Shimla to consider the ____ plan. (Wavell, Cripps, Cabinet Mission)
ii. The British administrators had used the word ‘Independence’ for the first time in _____. (Attlee’s announcement, Cabinet Mission Plan, Mountbatten Plan)
iii. The provisional government of India was led by ______ . ( Jawahar Lal Nehru, Rajgopalachari, Vallabhbhai Patel)
2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.
i. State the provisions of the Wavell Plan. (Oct. 99; 01)
ii. What were the important points of Attlee’s announcement?
iii. State any two features of the Mountbatten Plan? (Oct. 98)
iv. What were the shortcomings of Cabinet Mission Plan? (March 2001)
v. Who had appointed the Provisional Government? Why did the Muslim League create a number of problems in its operations? (Oct. 96) (March 97)
3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.
i. Muslim League rejected the Cabinet Mission Plan.
ii. The National Congress approved the Cabinet Mission Plan. (March 99)
iii. The Wavell Plan was abandoned. (March 98)
iv. The provisional government was established on September 2, 1946.
v. On July 18, 1947, the British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act.
vi. The All Party Conference at Simla failed.
vii. Indian National Congress found shortcomings in the Cabinet Mission Plan.
viii. Muslim League created problems in the operations of Provisional government.
ix. The Indian National Congress accepted the partition of India. (Oct. 01)
4. Write answer of the following in 5-6 sentences.
i. Sate the provisions of the Mountbatten Plan.
ii. State the features of the Indian Independence Act. (March 00)
iii. Why did Muslim League plan to take “Direct Action”?
iv. Sate the provisions of the Indian Independence Act. (March 2001)
v. State the nature of Cabinet Mission Plan.
vi. State the provisions of Wavell Plan. Why did it fail?
Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines
i. Give information about the Mountbatten Plan with the help of the points given below.
1) Transfer of power.
2) Division of the states.
3) Administration of the state.
ii. Give an account of the Indian Independence Act with the help of the following points.
1) Background.
2) Provisions. (March 96; 97)
3) Celebrations of Independence.
Other Important Examination Question
1A. Fill in the blanks
i. Lord Wavell was Viceroy of India in ______. (1935, 1945, 1926)
ii. _____ became the Prime Minister of Britain after Second World War. (Attlee, Churchill, Macdonald)
iii. The Cabinet Mission included Lawrence, Alexander and ______. (Cripps, Wavell, Mountbatten)
Match the followings
i. Cripps Mission 1928
ii. Wavell Plan 1945
iii. Cabinet Mission 1946
Writing the following events in the ascending order sequence.
i. Cripps Mission
ii. Round Table Conference
iii. Government of India Act 1935
iv. Quit India Movement
v. Wavell Plan
vi. Cabinet Mission Plan
vii. Election of Constituent Assembly. (March 2001)
viii. Mountbatten Plan.
ix. Independence of India.
2. Write the answer of the following in 2-3 sentences.
i. Why did Mahatma Gandhi launch Quit India Movement?
ii. Why did the Wavell Plan fail?
iii. What was Direct Action Day of Muslim League?
3. Give Reasons in two-three sentences.
i. Wavell Plan was abandoned.
ii. Congress participated in the elections to the Constituent Assembly.
iii. Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru gave his speech popular as “Tryst with Destiny”.
Question : 5 Write the answer of following in 20 lines
1. Write about ten important steps towards the independence of India.
2. State the features of Mountbatten Plan. (March 99) (Oct. 99)
3. What was the nature of Cabinet Mission Plan? (Oct. 98)
4. Describe the provisions of the Indian Independence Act. (March 00, Oct. 01) 


1. Step One – Wavell Plan: Wavell, the Viceroy of India in 1945, suggested a plan of constitutional reforms in India. Congress and League were not able to compromise and it failed.
2. Step Two – Independence to India declared by Attlee:
Attlee, Prime Minister of Britain and leader of Labour Party of England declared independence to India in his March 15 1946 statement.
3. Step Three – Cabinet Mission Plan: The Cabinet Mission Plan offered a Federation of India, Constituent Assembly to frame constitution for India etc.
The Cabinet Mission gave three lists in which the Indian provinces were divided which were not acceptable to Indians.
The elections for the Constitution Assembly was held in which Congress participated and succeeded.
League refused to participate in the interim government.
4. Step Four – Direct Action Day of the League:
League announced August 16, 1946 as a direct Action day when riots started on communal basis in different states.
5. Step Five – Establishment of Provisional Government:
Lord Wavell installed Provisional Government headed by Pandit Jwahar Lal Nehru on September 2, 1946. It was headed by Jwahar Lal Nehru. In October 1946, Muslim League also joined it.
6. Step Six – Declaration of Attlee of February 1947:
On February 28, 1947, Prime Minster Attlee that England would leave India after June 1948.
7. Step Seven – Mountbatten Plan: Mountbatten became Viceroy of India in March 1947. He gave a plan of partition of India and independence of India by August 1947.
8. Step Eight – Acceptance of Partition: The partition of India was accepted under which Pakistan was to be formed on basis of religion and India on the basis of secular model.
9. Step Nine: The Indian Independence Act:
The Indian Independence Act was passed in the British Parliament on July 18, 1947 allowing India and Pakistan to write their own constitution.
10. Step Ten: Arrival of Independence: India became independent on August 15, 1947. On the midnight of August 14, 1947 Prime Minister Jwahar Lal Nehru gave his famous speech known as Tryst with Destiny speech as the first Prime Minister of Independent India. 

Sunday, December 19, 2010


ഗാന്ധിജിക്ക് ഏഴു വയസ്സുള്ളപ്പോള്‍ എടുത്ത ഫോട്ടോ 

ഗാന്ധിജിയുടെ അമ്മ  പുത്ളി ഭായി 

ഗാന്ധിജിയുടെ അച്ചന്‍ കരം ചന്ദ് 

യുവാവായ ഗാന്ധി 

ഗാന്ധിജിയും സഹോദരന്‍ ലക്ഷ്മി ദാസും  

ഗാന്ധിജി ഇംഗ്ലണ്ടില്‍   വെജിറെരിയന്‍ സോസിയിട്ടിയുടെ കൂടെ  

നിയമ വിദ്യാര്‍ത്ഥിയായ ഗാന്ധി 

അട്വാകെറ്റ്   ആയ ഗാന്ധി 

ഗാന്ധി ദക്ഷിനാഫ്രികയിലെ നേട്ടാല്‍ കൊണ്ഗ്രീസിന്റെ കൂടെ 

ബൂവാര്‍  യുദ്ധത്തിലെ  സഹായി ആയ ഗാന്ധി 

ഗാന്ധിയും ഭാര്യ കസ്തൂര്‍ഭയും  

ഗാന്ധിയുടെ മക്കളായ ഹരി ലാല്‍ ,മണി ലാല്‍ ,രാം ദാസ്‌ ,ദേവ ദാസ്‌ 

പീടനത്തിനിരയായ ഗാന്ധി 

ആഫ്രിക്കയിലെ ടോല്സ്റോയി ഫാമില്‍ 

ഗാന്ധിയും ഗോഖലെയും 

ട്രാന്‍സ്വാള്‍ മാര്‍ച്ചില്‍  ഗാന്ധി 

സത്യാഗ്രഹ പരീക്ഷിക്കുന്നു 

ഗാന്ധി സത്യാഗ്രഹ വേഷത്തില്‍ 

ഫാതെര്‍ ഓഫ് ഇന്ത്യ 

ഉപ്പു സത്യാ  ഗ്രഹത്തില്‍ 

ആഫ്രിക്കയില്‍ നിന്നും തിരിച്ചെത്തിയ ഗാന്ധി 

ഉപ്പു  ഉണ്ടാക്കുന്നു  

വട്ട മേശ സമ്മേളനത്തില്‍ 

ഇംഗ്ലണ്ടിലെ സെന്റ്‌  ജയിംസ്  പാര്‍കില്‍ 

ലണ്ടനിലെ കിങ്ങ്സ്ലി ഹാളില്‍ 

ലങ്ഗാഷയരിലെ കൊട്ടാന്‍ തൊഴിലാളികളുടെ കൂടെ 

ഗാന്ധിയെ ജയിലില്‍ അടച്ച്ച്ചപ്പോള്‍ 

ഗാന്ധിയും നെഹ്രുവും 

ഗാന്ധി ഹിട്ലര്‍ക്ക് അയച്ച കത്ത് 

സഹായം ആവസ്യമുള്ളവര്‍ 

ശാസ്ത്രഞ്ഞനായ ഗാന്ധി 

നൂല്‍ നെയ്യുന്നു 

ജിന്നയും ഗാന്ധിയും 


മൌണ്ട്  ബാറ്റന്‍   ദമ്പതികളുടെ കൂടെ 

ഇന്ത്യയുടെ പിതാവ് 



1. Lesson Learnt By Britain:
- The Quit India Movement gave a lesson to British administration that it had to take the demand of complete independence of India seriously.
- The British Parliament transferred the power to India on August 15, 1947.
- The British Parliament passed through following phases and steps before transferring the power to the Indians.
2. Step one: The Wavell Plan: Failed due to adamant stand of Jinnah of Muslim League:
- Lord Wavell was the Viceroy of India in 1945.
- He framed a plan for the constitutional reforms for India as per the new policy.
- He called the meeting of all parties of India to discuss the plan at Shimla. It is also called the Shimla Conference.
a: Main features of the Wavell Plan:
- The main features of the Wavell Plan were as follows:
i. It proposed to reconstitute the Executive Council of the Viceroy. All the members of the Council except the Viceroy and the Commander-in-Chief were to be Indians.
ii. It proposed that there would be equal numbers of Muslims and Hindus in the proposed new Executive Council of Viceroy.
iii. All the departments except the Home department would be looked after by the Indians.
b: Wavell Plan failed due to adamant stand of Barrister Jinnah of Muslim League:
- The Indian National Congress suggested the name of Mulana Abul Kalam Azad as one of the representative for the Executive Council.
- Barrister Jinnah of Muslim declared that only Muslim League had the right to suggest the names of Muslim members to the Council.
- The Congress being a secular party did not accept the proposal.
- Even Lord Wavell did not accept the claim of Barrister Jinnah.
- The Shimla Conference was not able to reach any solution because Jinnah was adamant on issue of Muslim members.
- The Shimla Conference failed and the Wavell Plan was abandoned.
3. Step two: Independence to India declared by Attlee:
a: Labour Party under Attlee came into power in Britain:
- After the Second World War, the Labour Party came into power in Britain and Attlee became the Prime Minister of Britain.
- The Labour Party changed the policy of Britain towards India.
b: New Policy of Attlee on March 15, 1946:
- On March 15, 1946, the Prime Minister of Britain announced the new policy of Britain towards India.
- He declared that Britain would try to transfer power to India as early as possible and thereby give independence to India.
- He also declared that the issue of minority rights would not permitted to become hindrance in the way of independence to India.
c: Importance Attlee’s declaration of March 15, 1946:
- It was for the first time that the word ‘independence of India’ was used while declaring the policy of Britain in the British Parliament.
- In the declaration it was also accepted that the Indians had the right to write their own constitution.
4. Step three: The Cabinet Mission Plan: Lord Pethic Lawrence, Sir Strafford Cripps and A. V. Alexander:
a: The Commission or the Cabinet Mission:
- In line with the new policy Attlee sent a commission to India to discuss the issue of the writing the constitution by the Indians.
- The members of the members of the Commission were the ministers in the British Cabinet of Attlee.
- The plan which the commission brought for Indians was called Cabinet Mission Plan.
- The members of the commission were Lord Pethic Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A. V. Alexander.
b: The Cabinet Mission Plan:
- The main features of the Cabinet Mission Plan were as follows:
i. A Federation of India would be established. All the British India Provinces and the Indian Princely States could be the member of the Federation of India.
ii. The departments(ministries) of Home, Foreign affairs and Communication would be with the Federal government of India and rest of the departments would be with the provinces.
iii. A Constituent Assembly would be formed to write the constitution of India.
iv. The proposed Constituent Assembly would consist of elected members on the basis of the population of provinces.
v. The Indian Federation would be divided into three divisions (or the three lists) for the administrative purposes.
The three divisions as suggested by the Cabinet plan were as follows:
A: It would consist Madras, Bombay, the United Province (U.P.), Bihar, Central Provinces and Orissa. They were identified as the provinces having Hindu majority.
B: It would consist Punjab, North-West Province, Sindh and Baluchistan. They were identified as Muslim majority areas.
C: It would consist Bengal and Assam.
vi. The representatives of the each division would prepare a separate constitution for the regions of their division. They would also prepare the constitution for the Federation of India.
vii. A newly organised and restructured Executive Council of Viceroy would be formed in which the representatives of the leading and important political parties would be included.
viii. The newly restructured Executive Council consisting of Indian representative of political parties of India would work as the Interim government. The Interim government would rule till the new constitution was prepared.
c: Criticism of Cabinet Mission Plan and attitude of Indian Political parties:
- The division of India into three lists were arbitrary and given by Cabinet Mission as per their own ideas.
- The Interim Government at Center did not have any power and was weak.
- There was not mention of Independence of India. It only referred to writing of the constitution and Interim Government.
- The Indian political parties like Indian National Congress found it full of shortcomings.
- However, the India National Congress accepted to participate in constitution writing because it declared that it was the first opportunity for the Indians to write their own constitution.
- The Muslim League accepted the Cabinet Mission Plan showed desire to participate in the constitution writing.
d: Election of the Constituent Assembly and Success of Congress: (March 99, 2001)
- The election to the Constituent Assembly was held in July 1946.
- The Congress had not approved the Cabinet Mission Plan but participated in it because the party declared that it was the first opportunity for the Indians to write their own constitution. (March 99)
- The Muslim League, which was quite satisfied with the Cabinet Mission Plan participated in the election.
e: The Results of the Election to the Constitution Assembly and the Role of Muslim League:
- The election to the Constitution Assembly was held in July 1946.
- The Indian National Congress got a thumping majority in the election.
- The Muslim League, which had showed great enthusiasm for the fighting election, discarded the Cabinet Mission Plan after the result of election was declared. It was a shock to the Muslim League that the Indian National Congress had majority in the Constitution Assembly.
5. Step four: Direct Action Day of the Muslim League:
a: Changed Attitude of the Muslims League towards the Cabinet Mission Plan:
- When the Cabinet Mission Plan was announced, the Muslim League had approved it.
- However, latter the Muslim League rejected the plan on the complaint that the plan had not accepted the demand of Pakistan in clear terms.
b: Direct Action day call by Barrister Jinnah – August 16, 1946:
- When Muslim League found that the Cabinet Mission had not accepted their demand for Pakistan, it decided to adopt the path of violence to attain the goal of Pakistan.
- Barrister Jinnah gave the call of Direct Action. He declared August 16, 1946, as the day of Direct Action.
- On August 16, 1946, the workers of Muslim League started violence, arson and looting.
- It started in Bengal and soon spread over whole of India.
- It continued till the day of the partition of India.
- It was able to convey the message to the country that what would happen if the demand of Muslim League for a separate Pakistan was not accepted.
c: Role of Mahatma Gandhi during the riots of Direct Action:
- Mahatma Gandhi tried to the violence.
- He did not care for his life and visited the places of rioting and asked the people to maintain peace.
- However, the violence continued till the day of partition of India.
6. Step five: Provisional government:
- The violence after the announcement of Direct Action day was continuing when Viceroy of India, Lord Wavell announced the installing of the Provisional Government as per the results of the July 1946 election.
- Lord Wavell installed Provisional Government headed by Pandit Jwahar Lal Nehru on September 2, 1946. (March 2001)
- Pandit Jwahar Lal Nehru included Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Dr. Rajendra Parsad, C. Rajgopalachari, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, John Mathai and others in his government.
- The representatives of the Muslim League were also invited but they refused to join.
- However, in October 1946, Muslim League joined the Provisional government headed by Pandit Nehru.
- On joining the government, Muslim League started hindering the working of the government because it did not want that the government should work smoothly.
7. Step Six: Declaration of Attlee of February 28, 1947:
- On February 28, 1947, after the Constitution Assembly had started its work in November 1946 and the Provisional government had taken over with riots still going on, Attlee made the following declaration on February 28, 1947:
i. England would leave India before June 1948.
ii. In case the Indians were not able to decide on their constitution, then British would either hand over the government to Central government or to the provincial governments.
iii. The Princely states would become independent again when the British would leave India after relinquishing the power.
iv. Lord Mountbatten was made the Viceroy of India in place of Lord Wavell. Lord Mountbatten was sent only to execute the transfer of the power to the Indians before leaving India.
8. Step seven: The Mountbatten Plan:
- Lord Mountbatten was made Viceroy of India in place of Lord Wavell by the February 28 declaration of the Prime Minister Attlee of Labour Party.
- He reached India in March 1947.
- He held discussions with the chief political leaders of India after reaching India.
- He drafted a proposal of transfer of power after meeting the Indian leaders.
- He obtained approval for his proposal from the British government.
- On June 3, 1947, he declared his proposal for the transfer of power which is known as Mountbatten Plan. The main items of the proposal were as follows:
i. It was declared that the partition of India was must as there was no unanimity among the Indians on their constitution.
ii. India would be divided in two states – India and Pakistan.
iii. The Muslims and Non-Muslims of members of legislatures of Punjab and Bengal would decide the partition of their respective provinces.
iv. A plebiscite would be held in North West Frontier, British Baluchistan and Silhet district of Assam to decide with which new country they would be joined.
v. The Sindh Assembly would be authorised to decide its amalgamation either with India or Pakistan.
vi. The British administration would leave India in August 1947 after handing over the power to India and Pakistan which would be then independent sovereign countries.
vii. A boarder commission would be decided to mark the borders between India and Pakistan.
viii. The Princely States were made free to decide either to join one of the two countries or they wanted to remain independent.
9. Step eight: Acceptance of Partition: (March 97) (Oct. 96; 01)
- The Indian National Congress was not in favour of partition.
- The Muslim League was bent upon having a separate country.
- When the Indian National Congress accepted to settle the problem by accepting the partition, the partition took place.
- The Muslim League formed Pakistan on the basis of religion.
- The Indian National Congress formed India on the basis of its secular policy.
10. Step Nine: The Indian Independence Act:
- On the basis of the Mountbatten Plan, the British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on July 18, 1947.
- The main features of the Indian Independence Act of July 18, 1947, which came into force in India on August 15, 1947 were as follows: (March 96; 97; 00, 01) (Oct. 01)
i. On August 15, 1947, two independent and sovereign countries – India and Pakistan will come into existence.
ii. From August 15, 1947, the King of England will not call himself as the Emperor of India.
iii. The Constituent Assemblies of India and Pakistan will prepare their respective constitutions.
iv. Both India and Pakistan will have their separate Governor-Generals who will rule the respective states till their own constitution come into force.
v. The British rule also end its control over the Indian Princely States from August 15, 1947 onwards.
vi. After August 15, 1947, the Princely states will be independent. They will have the right to decide in favour of amalgamation with either of the two countries. They have the right to remain independent if they decide so.
vii. The British Parliament will cease to have the right to make laws for India after August 15, 1947.
11. Step Ten: The Arrival of Independence:
a: August 15, 1947:
- At the midnight of August 14, 1947, that is August 15, India became Independent.
- The celebration of independence of India was made in Delhi.
- The Indian Tricolour was unfurled after dismantling the Union Jack, the flag of British nation.
- Pandit Jwahar Lal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of India.
- The independence was the result of the collective efforts of the Indians which had continued for 150 years.
- 1947 was the culmination of the independence war which had started in 1857.
b: “Tryst with Destiny” the first speech of first Prime Minister of independent Republic of India:
- The following lines were the opening part of the speech of the first Prime Minister Jwahar Lal Nehru of the independent Republic of India. It was delivered at the midnight of August 14, 1947 in the Parliament House of independent India.
- “Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity.”