Wednesday, December 28, 2011
Friday, December 23, 2011
Mahe River which is also called by the name Mayyazhipuzha is in Mahe. Mahe was a former French settlement which lies in Kannur district but is officially part of Pondicherry. During the rule of the British, Mahe River was popularly called as the English Channel.
It was named so as this river separated British ruled Thalassery and French ruled Mahe. The river originates from the forests of Wayanad and has a length of 54 kms. Some of the villages through which the river passes are Vanimel, Iringanoor Peringalam, Edachery, Eramala, Kariyad, Mahe etc. After travelling through all these villages, it empties into the Arabian Sea.
Tuesday, December 20, 2011
History writing is an important process.‘Subaltran studies’ is a new trend of writing histo r y, lik e o th er tr en d s i.e. I mp er ialis m,Premitivism, Nationalism, Marxism, Neo-Marxism, Feminism, Ambedkarism. The need of rewriting and revoluation on the basis of narration of history is being expressed.
1. Explain the meaning and nature of the Subaltern History. 2. A study of rise of the Subaltern History writing.
3. A study of available sources for the Subaltern History Writing.
4. The survey of early contribution of Subaltern History writing in the India.
PM’s Address at 150th Year of the Archeological Survey of India
The Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh addressed the 150th year of the Archeological Survey of India at a function in New Delhi today. The following is the text of the Prime Minister’s address on the occasion:
“It gives me great pleasure to be present here at this unique event to commemorate and celebrate the 150th year of the Archaeological Survey of India.
Monday, December 19, 2011
PARTITION OF BENGAL
1. Reason: Curzon’s imperialist policy of ‘divide and rule’ manifested itself most glaringly in the partition pf Bengal. The reasons given were --The area and population of the Provinces of Bengal was too large. There was a problem of communication. Highways were not safe. The peasants of this province were a harassed lot.
2. But actually the cause behind the partition was much more political than administrative. Bengal was becoming the nerve centre of nationalist activities in India.
IMPORTANT WARS-In Indain Soil
1) First Carnatic War- 1745-48-Austrian War cause- Nawab ofCarnatic supported British but lost- Victory forFrench- difference between Dupleix andLa Bourdaunaris- Treaty of
Aix.La Chapple- Madras given back-Proved superiority of foreign army over Large local Army
2) Second Carnatic War-1749-54-Originally Dupleix,Chanda Sahib, and Nasir Jung joined and defeated Md Ali in the battle of AMBUR.
INDIA IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY
1.Political and other Conditions Generally it was fluid and past deteriorating. Disintegration of Mughal Empire, Growth of Marathas and Peshwas and rise of autonomous states and foreign invasions were the salient future.
Women were treated badly and were victims of Saty, Child marriage, Infanticide, Purdha (both muslims and higher caste Hindus wore it) and Devadasi system in Orissa and Tamil Nadu.
Sarojini Naidu or Sarojini Chattopadhyaya , also known by the sobriquet Bharatiya Kokila (The Nightingale of India), was a child prodigy, freedom fighter, and poet. Naidu was the first Indian woman to become the President of the Indian National Congress and the first woman to become the Governor of Uttar Pradesh.
Administrative Changes after Revolt of 1857
For more reasons than one, the revolt of 1857 marks a turning point in the history of India.
In a sense it demonstrated that the hold of the company on was still rather weak, and its lessons continued to influence British administration in India for several generations. It directly produced three important changes in the system of administration and the policy of government.
Literature As Reflection Of The Society;War Songs With Special Reference To Cheroor PadaPattu.
Literature is an important source material for the process of historical reconstruction.So a researcher may required to take a literary work which predominantly uses history as its subject matter,so that he could examine the ways and the extent to which an imaginative work appropriates history.
In any study of literature, a carefull attempt is necessary to distinguish between two different approaches to the text, literary scholarship and literary interpretation.
Thursday, December 15, 2011
Tuesday, December 6, 2011
Who was Domingo Paes? During whose rule he came to India?
Domingo Paes was a Portuguese traveller who came during the reign of Krishna Deva Raya.
What was the importance of these bazaars?
The Vijayanagara Empire possessed an urban quality, which is not witnessed in any other South Indian state of the time.
The capital city integrated within its precincts
markets, palaces, temples, mosques etc. It was in the bazaars where business was carried on by the merchants.
What is Karnataka samrajyamu?
Karnataka samrajyamu was the name used by the contemporaries to describe the Vijayanagara Empire and it is quite true with finding of the evidences of Empire in Karnataka at Hampi.
Historians, however, use the term Vijayanagara Empire.
Name the rulers with whom the Vijayanagara kings competed.
On the northern frontiers, the Vijayanagara kings competed with contemporary rulers such as the Sultans of the Deccan and the Gajapati rulers of Orissa for control of the fertile river valleys and the resources that were brought by overseas trade.
Write a note on the travellers who visited the Vijayanagara Empire.
Several travellers visited the city of Vijayanagara and let their travel accounts.Notable among them are Italian trader Nicolo de Conti, an ambassador named Abdur
Razzaq sent by the ruler of Persia and a merchant named Afanasii Nikitin from Russia.
All of them visited the city in the fifteenth century. And Portuguese travellers like Duarte barbosa, Domingo Paes and Fernao visited the city in the sixteenth century.
Saturday, December 3, 2011
The Pilgrim Fathers
The Pilgrim Fathers saw little chance of England becoming a country in which they wished to live. They viewed it as un-Godly and moving from a bad to worse state. The Pilgrim Fathers believed that a new start in the New World was their only chance.
A lot of the trials and tribulations about where they should sail to, the journey across the Atlantic to the New World and the initial problems experienced by the Pilgrim Fathers are contained in a diary written by William Bradford.
The Code of Hammurabi
This, the earliest known written legal code, was composed about 1780 B.C.E. by Hammurabi, the ruler of Bablyon. This text was excavated in 1901; it was carved on an eight foot high stone monolith.
The harsh system of punishment expressed in this text prefigures the concept of 'an eye for an eye'. The Code lays out the basis of both criminal and civil law, and defines procedures for commerce and trade.
This text was redacted for 1,500 years, and is considered the predecessor of Jewish and Islamic legal systems alike.
The English navigator James Cook, possibly the greatest explorer of the 18th century, is known for his voyages to the Pacific Ocean and his application of scientific methods to exploration and to cartography.
Born on Oct. 27, 1728, he was the son of a poor Scotsman who had settled in Yorkshire as an agricultural labourer. After a short time in a haberdasher's shop at Stainthes, he became a bound apprentice to a Whitby ship owner, and spent several years in coasting and Baltic trade.
He joined the Royal Navy in 1755 as an able-bodied seaman, soon became a mate, and within four years became a master.
Saturday, November 26, 2011
Periyar River which has a length of 244 kms is the longest river in Kerala. It is a perennial river and is used for supplying drinking water. It is popularly called as the Lifeline of Kerala. Periyar River originates from Sivagiri hills of Western Ghats and flows through the Periyar National Park and reaches the Periyar Lake. The water from here then flows into the Vembanad Lake and then finally to the Arabian Sea. A portion of the water from the lake is diverted through a tunnel into the Vaigai River in Tamil Nadu state. This water is used for supplying drinking water in almost 5 drought affected districts in Tamil Nadu. The Periyar Lake dam is maintained by the Tamil Nadu government based on an agreement between the two states.
Bharathapuzha River which has a length of 209 kms is the second longest river in Kerala. It is considered as the Nile of Kerala and is also called as Nila. It is also known by other names such as Kuttipuram puzha and Ponnaniyar. This river originates from Anaimalai hills of Western Ghats and flows towards the west direction. On the way many rivers join Bharathapuzha and finally flow into the Arabian Sea. The river spreads across the Palakkad and Malappuram districts.
Westphalia is a region in Germany.Westphalia is roughly the region between the rivers Rhine and Weser.
Westphalia is known for the 1648 Peace of Westphalia which ended the Thirty Years' War.
The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October of 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster.
These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic.
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro, was a Spanish conqueror who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers that began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Battle of Zama
The Battle of Zama, fought around October 19, 202 BC, marked the final and decisive end of the Second Punic War.
Wednesday, November 23, 2011
Sunday, November 20, 2011
Tamil, Kannada inscriptions found in Vellore village
The Tamil inscription of Rashtrakuta king Krishna-III of 10th century CE found at Melpadi village in Tamil Nadu by K. Kumar, Archaeologist. in October 2011.
The two inscriptions record that Rashtrakuta King Krishna III gifted village to poet Appaiyan
Two inscriptions belonging to the reign of the Rashtrakuta King, Krishna III, were found at Vallimalai village in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu.
What were the main features of the water resources that the Vijayanagara Empire had.
· Vijayanagara was located in the natural basin formed by the river Tungabhadra
which flows in the north-easterly direction and the landscape that surrounded the city
with granite hills.
· Many embankments were built along these streams to create reservoirs of
different sizes. Since Vijayanagara was one of the most arid zones of the peninsula,
perfect arrangements were made to store rainwater to be used in the city.
· Kamalapuram tank is the best example for such a tank built in the early years of
the fifteenth century. Water from this tank was used not only for irrigating fields but
was also conducted through a channel to the “royal centre”.
· According to the historians, the Hiriya canal was one of the most prominent
Who replaced the Saluva dynasty?
The first dynasty of Vijayanagara Empire was replaced by the Saluva dynasty and its
end was same as the end of Sangama dynasty. The Saluva dynasty was replaced by
the Tuluva dynasty. Krishnadeva Raya belonged to the Tuluva dynasty
What was the condition of the Vijayanagara kingdom after the death of
After the death of Krishnadeva Raya in 1529, his successors faced problems created
by rebellious nayakas or military chiefs. By 1542 the control of the empire came
under another ruling lineage, the Aravidu, which continued till the end of the
seventeenth century and in 1565 Vijayanagara Empire vanished as it was defeated in
the Battle of Rakshasi-Tangadi.
What is Karnataka samrajyamu?
Karnataka samrajyamu was the name used by the contemporaries to describe the
Vijayanagara Empire and it is quite true with finding of the evidences of Empire in
Karnataka at Hampi. Historians, however, use the term Vijayanagara Empire.
Name the rulers with whom the Vijayanagara kings competed.
On the northern frontiers, the Vijayanagara kings competed with contemporary rulers
such as the Sultans of the Deccan and the Gajapati rulers of Orissa for control of the
fertile river valleys and the resources that were brought by overseas trade.
Who founded the Vijayanagara Empire?
According to tradition and epigraphic evidence two brothers, Harihara and Bukka,
founded the Vijayanagara Empire in 1336 on the inspiration from their Guru
Vidhyaranya. This empire included different people who spoke different languages
and followed different religious traditions.
Thursday, November 17, 2011
3-What were the sources used by Colin Mackenzie in order to gather information
Colin Mackenzie gathered the information from variety of sources. At first he tried to
get information from the priest of Virupaksha temple. The information, thus collected
was corroborated with the architectural and literary sources.
Who was the founder of the empire? Who inspired them to lay foundation of the
Two brothers Harihar and Bukka laid the foundation of the Vijayanagara Empire in
the year 1336. Saint Vidyaranya inspired them to establish the empire.
1-Write a note on the royal centre of the Vijayanagara Empire.
The royal centre was located in the south-western part of the settlement. It included
60 temples. According to historians the patronage of temples was important for rulers,
because they were trying to establish their authority through association with the
divinities housed in the shrines. Archaeologists have identified about thirty buildings
as palaces and with large structures meant for rituals.
Wednesday, November 16, 2011
POLITICAL SCIENCE –OBJECTIVE TYPE (sem 1 )
What is political science?.
Political Science is a social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, government and politics. Aristotle defined it as the study of the state.
It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics, and the analysis of political systems and political behavior. Political scientists "see themselves engaged in revealing the relationships underlying political events and conditions.
And from these revelations they attempt to construct general principles about the way the world of politics works.
Political science intersects with other fields; including anthropology, national politics,economics, international relations, psychology, sociology, history, law, and political theory.
Although it was codified in the 19th century, when all the social sciences were established, political science has ancient roots; indeed, it originated almost 2,500 years ago with the works of Plato and Aristotle.
1-Father of political science is Aristotle.
2-Aristotle said that “man is a social as well as political animal”..
3-To Aristotle “democracy is a form of polity.
4-Aristotle was the student of Plato.
Saturday, November 12, 2011
Otto I the Great
Otto I the Great son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke of Saxony, King of Germany, King of Italy, and "the first of the Germans to be called the emperor of Italy" according to Arnulf of Milan.
While Charlemagne had been crowned Emperor in 800, his empire had been divided amongst his grandsons, and following the assassination of Berengar of Friuli in 924, the Imperial title had lain vacant for nearly forty years.
On 2 February 962, Otto was crowned Emperor of what later became the Holy Roman Empire.
Council of Clermont
The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held from November 18 to November 28, 1095 at Clermont, France.
Pope Urban II's speech on November 27 was the starting point of the First Crusade.