Tuesday, March 22, 2011


(1)The copper – hoard culture in the post – Harappa period has provisionally been identified with which one of the following pottery types?
a) Sothi Pottery 
b) Ochre colour pottery
c) Painted grey ware 
d) Northern Black polished ware

Answer: Ochre Colour Pottery

The Sothi Pottery: The Sothi Pottery belongs to the earlier stage of the Harapa Culture. The pottery of this phase was found at Sothi in Bikaner District of Rajesthan. The Sothi pottery is about the earliest stages of the Harapa Culture and not the post Harapa Culture. The main scholar giving this view is Amalanand Ghose as described in An Encyclopedia of Indian Archeology page 72. The phase is early stage is identified with Kalibangan finds also. 

Painted Grey Ware: Painted Grey Ware refers to the post Harapa culture but it is later than OCP-Copper Hoard culture. It belongs to Iron Age Culture of Gangetic Plain. It does not belong to the Bronze Age. The time period is between 1100 BC to 350 BC. It succeeds Black and red ware culture. Some of the earlier phase is contemporary to the Black and Red Ware culture. It belongs to rather Later Vedic period. It was followed by Northern Black Polished Ware culure. According to B. B. Lal, it flourished in around Hastinapur, Mathura, Ahichatra, Barnawa and Kurukshetra. 

Northern Black Polished Ware: Northern Black Polished Ware culture succeeded Painted Grey Ware Culture. It had started in the middle of Later Vedic Period. It continued upto the rise of the Mauryan Empire. This culture is of interest more for its impact of Harapa Culture on the later period. The impact had been seen in the use of the mud bricks, backed bricks, architecture, and different crafts. But it appeared long after the disappearance of Harapa culture. 

Hence, the Harapa Culture period is identified with 3000 to 1750 BC. The Sothi Culture is identified with the 3000 to 2000 BC. The Ochre Colour pottery culture more recognizable for the collection of refined copper implements belongs to 2000 to 1000 BC. The Painted Grey Ware culture belongs to 1000 to 300 BC. Northern Black Polished Ware belongs to 700 BC to 300 BC. 
The Harappan Culture followed the Chalcolithic Age or the Copper Age. The Sothi culture belongs to Bronze Age. The Ochre coloured belongs to later stage of Bronze Age but with increased use of refined copper but pre-Iron Age. The rest of the two belongs to Iron age.

Ans: C. Both 1 and 2.
In Mohenjo daro the lime mortar use is quite evident in the Great Hall and Great Bath complex.
Dholavira (Kotada), in Bhachau taluka of district Kutch of Gujarat, is another metropolis of Harappan Civilization which has similar city plan as that of Mohenjodaro and Harappa. No doubt that main contruction material is sun baked burned mud bricks but the most significant feature of Dholavira is the use of stone in the dwelling buildings. It was discovered by J P Joshi in 1967-68. It is one of the four main major cities of the Harappan culture. It is also distinctivly different from other cities because of more importance is given to fortification in this city. Dholavira is also famous for ten large sized inscriptions which has been identified as the oldest sign board in the world. It is also famous for making arrangement for the water storage. It used limestone along with baked bricks. 

3) With reference to Indus Valley Civilization, consider the following animals:
1. Bull 2. Elephant 3. Rhinoceros
The figure/figures of which of the above animal/animals is/are found on the Indus seals?
a) 1 only
b) 1 and 2 only
c) 2 and 3 only
d) 1,2 and 3

Ans: Bull, Elephant and Rhinoceros, are all shown the seals. Apart from that the markhor (a goat), tiger, Buffaloes, crocodile, fish, hare and dogs are other animals shown on the seals. In addition to that there are shown composite animals wherein like the head is that of a tiger but hind legs are of bull. The special animal is unicorn. 

4) Which one of the following contains the famous Gayatri Mantra?
a) Rig Veda
b) Samveda
c) Yajurveda
d) Atharvadeda

Ans: a. Rig Veda.

Gayatri Mantra is found in Third Mandal of Rig Veda. The Mandal has 62 hymns and the tenth richa in the 62th hymn is the gyatri mantra. It is attributed to Rishi Vishvamitra. The Gayatri Mantra is addressed to god Savitar. The rest of the hymns of the third mandal at attributed Agni and Indra. It being in the third Mandal, hence, it belongs to the core part of the Rig Veda as the first and the tenth mandals are considered to be the latter additions. It is called gayatri because of the meter used to chant is gayatri. The second name is Savitri Mantra, after the name of the god who is invoked in this mantra. (Savitar is shown as an aspect of Usha – a goddess whereas in most of the books checked, Savitri is shown as male divinity and thus an aspect of Surya). Savitri Mantra is repeated again and again in numerous upnishads. It has been widely praised and interepreted by leading brains of India like Swami Vivekananda, S Radhakrishanan, J. Krishnamurthi and many others.

5) The famous phrase “tattvamasi” is found in which one of the following Upanishads?
a) Chandogya
b) Mundaka
c) Mandukya
d) Isavasya

Ans: a. Chandogya Upnishad.
Tattvamasi literary means You Are That. Linguistically correct version is Thou art That.
It is an utterance in the dialogue between Uddalaka Aruni and Shvetaketu. Shvetaketu was son of Uddalaka. 

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