Important Foreign Travelers/Envoys to India
1-Megasthenes (302-298 B.C.): An ambassador of Seleucus Nieator. who visited the court of Chandragupta Maurya. He wrote an interesting book India in which he gave a vivid account of
Chandragupta Maurya’s reign.
2-Fa-Hsien (405-411 A.I).): He came to India during the reign of Chandragupta II Vikiamaditya. The
object of his visit was to see the holy places of Buddhism and to collect Buddhist hooks and relics. He
was the first Chinese pilgrim to visit India.
3-Hiuen-Tsang (also spelt Yuan Chwang) (630-645 A.D):He usiied India during the reign of Harsha.
4-1-tsing (671-695 A.D): A Chinese traveller, he visited India in connection with Buddhism. His work
Biographies of eminent Monks, provides us useful information about the social, religious and cultural
life of the people of this country.
5-Al-Masudi (957 A.D): An Arab traveller, he has given an extensive account of India in his work
6-Al-beruni (1024-1030 A.D.): His real name was Abu Rehan Mahamud and he came to India along with
Mahmud of Ghazni during one of his India raids. He travelled all over India and wrote a book Tahqiq-l-
Hind. The book dealt with the social, religious and political conditions in India.
7-Marco Polo (1292-1294 A.D.): A Venetian traveller, he visited South India in 1294 A.D. His work The
Book of Sir Marco Polo givers an invaluable account of the economic history of India.
8-Ibn Butula (1333-1347 A.D.): A Morrish traveller, he visited India during the reign of Muhammad-bin-
Tughlaq. His book Rehla (the Travelogue) throws a lot of light on the reign of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq
and the geographical, economic and social sonditions in India.
9-Shihabuddin al-Umari (1348 A.D): He came from Damascus. He gives a vivid account of India in his
book, Masalik albsar fi-mamalik al-amsar.
10-Nicolo Conti (1420-1421 A.D.): A Venetian traveller, he gives a comprehensive account of the Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar.
11-Abdur Razzaq (1443-1444 A. D.): He was a Persian traveller who came to India and stayed at the court of the Zamorin at Calicut. He has given a vivid account of the Vijayanagar empire, especially of the city.He describes the wealth and luxurious life of the king and the nobles.
12- Athanasius Nikitin (1470-1474 A.D): lie was a Russian merchant, who visited south India in 1470. he
describes (he condition of the Bahmani kingdom under Muhammad III (1463-82).
13-Duarte Barbosa (1500-1516 A.D.): He was a Portuguese traveller. He has given a valuable narrative of the government and the people of the Vijayanagar empire.
14-Domingos Paes 11520-1522 A.D): He was a Portuguese traveller who visited the court of
Krishnadeve Raya of the Vijayanagar Empire.
15-Fernao Nuniz (1534-1537 A.D): A Portuguese merchant who visited the Vijayanagar empire. He wrote the history of the empire from its earliest dines lo (he closing years of Achyutdeve Raya’s reign.
16-John Hnghen Von Linschbotten (1583 A.D): he was a Dutch traveler, who has given a valuable account of the social and economic life of South India.
17-William Hawkins (1608-1611 A.D.): He was an English ambassador of the British King James lo die court of Jahangir (1609).
18- Sir Thomas Roe (1615-1619 A.D.): He was an ambassador of James I, King of England, at (he court of
Jahangir, the Mughal emperor.
19-Franciso Palsaert (1620-1627 A.D.): He was a Dutch traveller who stayed at Agra and gave a vivid account of the flourishing trade at Sural. Ahmedabad, Broach. Cambay, Lahore. Multan, etc.
20-John Albert de Mandesto (1638 A.D.): He was a German traveller, who reached Surat in 1638.
21- Peter Mundy (1630-34 A.D): He was an Italian traveller (o (he Mughal empire m the reign of Shah Jahan. He gives valuable information about the living standard of the common people in (he Mughal Empire.
22-Jean Baptiste Tavernier (1638-1663 A.D.): He was a French traveller who visited India six limes. His account covers the reign of Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb.
23-Nicolae Manucci (1656-1708 A.D.): He was an Italian traveller, who got service at (he court of Data Shikoh.
24-Francois Bernier (1656-1717 A.D.): He was a French physician and philosopher. Danishamand khan, a noble of Aurangzeb, was his patron.
25-Jean de Thevenot (1666 A.D.): He was French traveller. Who has given a good account of cities like Ahmedabad.Cambay, Aurangabad and Golconda. John Fryer (1672-1681 A.D.): He was an English traveller who has given a vivid account of Surat and Bombay.
26-Gemelli Careri (1695 A.D.): He was an Italian traveler who landed at Daman. His remarks on the Mughal emperor’s military organization and administration are important.