Thursday, June 23, 2011

GOVERNOR-GENERALS OF INDIA

GOVERNOR-GENERALS  OF INDIA-UGC

1-Robert Clive 1757-60 AND 1765-67: Battle of Buxar- Siraj Ud doula- Dual Govt in Bengal- First Treaty of Allahbad in 1765 with Shuja ud Doula and second with Shah Alam II..First Governor of Bengal. Battle of Plassey was in 1764 and Governor was Pensitrat

2-Warren Hastings
(1772-85) First Governor-General of Bengal.
Creation of the post of Collector- Regulating Act of 1773

The Act of 1781 (it made a clear demarcation between the jurisdiction of the Governor General-in-Council and that of then Supreme Court at Calcutta).

-Pitt’s India Act of 1784.--The Rohila war (1774) and annexation of Rohilkhand by the Nawab of Oudh with help of the British.---First Maratha war (1775-82) and the Treaty of Salbai (1782).--Second Mysore war (1780-84) (First one was fought in 1766-69).--Nand Kumar episode (1775) First English translation Gita by Charles Wilkins --Foundation of the Asiatic Society of Bengal by Hastings and Sir William Jones (1784). After his return to England (1785), impeachment proceedings were started against him. After a prolonged trial (seven years), he was finally acquitted.


3-Lord Cornwalls (1786-93)

Third Mysore War (1790-92) and the Treaty of Seringapatam (1792).

Permanent revenue settlement.Reform of the judiciary- Creation OF district Judge (1793) – Code – Europeonisation of Civil Service.

4-Sir John Shore (1793-98)

In the introduction of the permanent settlement (1793) he played an important role as the President of the Board of Revenue, but his Governor-Generalship was very uneventful.

5-Lord Wellesley (1798-1805)

Introduction of the system of Subsidiary Alliance (1798), and the first Subsidiary Treaty with the Nizam of Hyderabad (1798)-Fourth Mysore War (1799) and the annexation of many parts of Mysore.-Subsidiary Treaty of Bassein (1802) and Second Maratha War (1803-05).

* Formation of the Madras Presidency after the annexation of the kingdoms of Tanjore and Carnatic.
* Fort Williams- Training College.

6-Lord Minto I (1807-13)Before Minto, Sir George Barlow was the governor-general for two years (1805-07). Main event was the Vellore Mutiny (1806).

Treaty of Amritsar with Ramjit Singh (1809).--Charter Act of 1813

7-Lord Hastings
(1813-23)

War with Nepal or the Gorkha War (1814-16); due to his success in this war, he was made Marquis of Hastings (1816).

* Third Maratha War (1817-1818) – abolition of Peshwaship and annexation of all his territories, and creation of the Bombay Presidency (1818).
* Pindari wars (1817-1818).
* Introduction of the ryotwari settlement in Madras Presidency by governor, Thomas Munro (1820).

8-Lord Amherst (1823-28)First Burmese War (1824-26)Capture of Bharatpur (1826)

9-Lord William Bentinck
(1828-35)- First Governor General of India.

Prohibition of sati (1829).

* Suppression of thuggee (1829-35).-Charter Act of 1833.
* Macaulay’s Minutes and introduction of English as the medium of instruction (1833)
* Visit of Rammohan Roy to England (1830) and his death there (1833).
* Deposition of the Raja of Mysore and annexation of his territories (1831).

10-Charles Metcafle 1835-36- Famous Press law and Liberator of Press in India

11-Lord Auckland
(1835-42)

First Afghan War (1836-42) – disaster of the British in the war and recall of Auckland.-Death of Ranjit Singh (1839).

12-Lord Ellenborough (1842-44).

Termination of the first Afghan war (1842).

* Conquest and annexation of Sind (1843)-War with Gwalior (1843).

13-Lord Hardinge
(1844-48)

First Sikh war (1845-46) and treaty of Lahore (1846)

Prohibition of female infanticide and suppression of the practice of human sacrifice among the Gonds of central India.

14-Lord Dalhousie
(1848-56)

Second Sikh war (1848-49) and annexation of the Punjab.

* Second Burmesewar (1852) and annexation of Lower Burma.
* Charter Act of 1853.
* Application of the Doctrine of Lapse and annexation of Satara (1848), Sambalpur (1849), Jhansi (1853) Nagpur (1854), etc.
* Annexation of Oudh (1856).
* Wood’s (President of the Board of Control) Education Despatch of 1854 and British assumption of the responsibility of educating the masses.
* Introduction of the Railways (First train-Bombay to Thana), Telegraph (First line-Calcutta to Agra) and the Postal System in 1853.
* Widow/Remarriage Act (1856)
* Establishment of a separate Public Works Department in every province.
* Santhal uprising (1855-56)

1-Lord Canning (1856-57)

Establishment of three universities (at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay) in 1857.

* Revolt of 1857.
 

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