Thursday, January 20, 2011



1. Like other Muslim monarchs, Akbar was, at least in theory, subordinate to the wishes of entire Muslim population (millat), which, in turn, was guided by the Muslimlearned divines called the Ulema. Akbar sought to remove this check to his will and became the supreme authority over his Muslim subjects by promulgating theInfallibility Decree (Mahzar) in September 1579.
2. Akbar believed that the king must be absolutely tolerant to every creed and must establish universal peace in his dominion.
3. As per Abul Fazal’s Akbarnama, Akbar appeared three times every day for State business. Early at sunrise he used to be ready at jhroka-i-darshan to show himself to his subjects. Here he was accessible to the common people and listened to their complaints. Next, he used to hold an open court which generally lasted for four and a half hours. People from both sexes were allowed to submit their petitions and the emperor used to decide the cases on the spot.
4. In the afternoon Akbar used to hold a full durbar in the Diwan-i-Aam. Here he attended to daily routine business, particularly relating to forces, workshops and to the appointment and promotion of mansabdars and granting of jagirs.



1). The Indian Association and National Conference both were founded by-
a) Surendranath Bannerjee
b) Ananda Mohana Bose
c) Both (a) and (b)
d) Sisir kumar Ghosh
2). Who of the following founded a National society, a national paper, a national school and a national Gymnasium and made the word “ National “ popular in the later half of 19th century?
a) Jothindranath Tagore
b) Rajanarayan Bose
c) Nabagopal mitra
d) Satyendranath Tagore
3). Balagangadhar Tilak was given the epithet of “ LOKMANYA “<universally respected> during:
a) Swadeshi movement
b) Revolement
c) Home rule movement
d) His imprisonment in 1908
4). Who was instrumental in founding the National Committee in 1938 for drawing up a plan for economic development on the basis of industrialization?
a) Subhas Chandra Bose
b) Jawaharlal Nehru
c) Mahatma Gandhi
d) Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad
5). Madan lal Dhingra murdered Curzon Wyllie in London, who was a ____________
a) Sec. of State for India
b) Advisor to the Sec of State for India
c) Law member of Viceroy’s exe council
d) Former Governor of Punjab

Tuesday, January 18, 2011


St. Francis Xavier 
Letter from India, to the Society of Jesus at Rome, 1543

 May the grace and charity of Christ our Lord always help and favor us! Amen.

It is now the third year since I left Portugal. I am writing to you for the third time, having as yet received only one letter from you, dated February 1542. God is my witness what joy it caused me. I only received it two months ago, later than is usual for letters to reach India, because the vessel which brought it had passed the winter at Mozambique.
I and Francis Mancias are now living amongst the Christians of Comorin. They are very numerous, and increase largely every day.



 John A. Hobson (1858­1940), an English economist, wrote one the most famous critiques of the economic bases of imperialism in 1902.
Amid the welter of vague political abstractions to lay one's finger accurately upon any "ism" so as to pin it down and mark it out by definition seems impossible. Where meanings shift so quickly and so subtly, not only following changes of thought, but often manipulated artificially by political practitioners so as to obscure, expand, or distort, it is idle to demand the same rigour as is expected in the exact sciences. A certain broad consistency in its relations to other kindred terms is the nearest approach to definition which such a term as Imperialism admits.