Thursday, March 31, 2011

Louis XIV – The Sun King and the Great Enlightened Monarch

Louis XIV – The Sun King and the Great Enlightened Monarch

Question: III-1- 4: Briefly discuss the main achievements of Louis XIV of France. Why is he called the ‘Sun King’?

Answer: In 1643, Louis XIV took over the emperor of France. He was hardly five years old at that time. Upto 1661, Cardinal Mazarin ruled France for the young king.

Mazarin Period:

1. Peace with Neighbours: Mazarin secured the borders of France from the Habsburg dynasty ruling over Austria and Spain. He signed the pace of Westphalia with Austria in 1648 and the treaty of Pyrenees with Spain in 1659. It helped Louis later to raise the prestige of France and his Bourbon family.
2. Popular Revolt - Fronde: Mazarin was able to suppress the popular revolt, which is popular in French history as Fronde. It was the revolt of the people of Paris Parliament against Mazarin. There were following results: (1). The nobles became weak before the authority of the Emperor. (2). The Parliament of Paris was weakened and the Emperor was able to establish his authority. (3) The Parliament lost the power over the financial and political matters before the rulings given by the Emperor. (4) The royal authority was placed on firmer grounds. It later helped Louis to establish the authority of his rule in France.

The Age of Louis XIV

3. Establishment of Absolute Rule: It was Louis XIV who was able to make the Europe believe in the principle of divine right of monarchical absolutism. He brought the rule of the empire in direct control of his hand in 1661 after the death of his mentor Mazarin. He achieved it by his deeds and personality as the Emperor of France. It made the French people loyal to the French Emperor till the days of the French Revolution. His ideology was framed by the guidance of his tutor Bossuet. The Emperor learned and was fixed the belief that he was having divine blessings. That, his main aim was the welfare of the nation and he is answerable to god for that. That what so ever he thought and deemed it right to do, all that was guided by the God himself. With such a mental grooming, he achieved the honour for France not only in internal matters but also in the European politics. He became the role model of rest of the kings of Europe who were getting freedom from dependence upon their feudal lords.



Question: III-2-5: Frederick the Great of Prussia was an enlightened monarch. Do you agree with this?
Describe the achievements of Frederick the Great of Prussia.

Answer: Fredrick II ruled over Prussia from 1740 to 1786. He is known as the Fredrick the Great in history. His name shines with the names of Henry IV of France and Louis XIV of France among the enlightened monarchs of Europe. He was a complete despot who had taken over the reigns of every department in the state but still he was a king who worked for the welfare of the people.

Domestic Policy

1). An Enlightened Monarch: Frederick thought of kingship as a duty. In his Anti-Machiavel discussion of the principles of good government published in 1740, Frederick wrote that there were two types of princes, those who ruled in person and those who worked through subordinates. The formers were "like the soul of a state" and "the weight of their government falls on themselves alone, like the world on the back of Atlas," whereas the second group were mere phantoms. Under him the Prussian administration was the most honest and hardworking in Europe. Its achievements, however, stemmed from the impetus supplied from above by the king rather than from any creative force inherent in the system itself.

Glorious Revolution

Glorious Revolution

Causes and Results of Glorious Revolution

Question IV-1-6: Trace the events which led to the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
What were the main causes of Glorious Revolution? Discuss its events?
Why is the Glorious Revolution is called glorious?
Describe the circumstance leading to the Glorious Revolution. Why is called glorious?
What were effects of Glorious Revolution on the history of Great Britain?

Answer: In 1685, Duke of York took over the throne of England as King James II. However, with in three years, all the political parties of England and people of England became so annoyed with James II because of his policies that they requested the daughter of James II, Mary and her husband William of Orange to take over throne. When James II found that the whole nation was against him, he abandoned the throne in 1688. King William took over the throne of England on the request of her Parliament. This event is known as the Bloodless Revolution or Glorious Revolution.

The American Revolution

The American Revolution

Question V-1-7: Discuss the main causes of American Revolution? What were its effects?
Describe in brief the main causes of American Revolution.
AnswerCauses of the American Revolution:The American Revolution was the most important event of the eighteenth century in the history of world. The American colonies shook off the slavery of Britain by this revolution. The Britain had thirteen colonies in America. The British Emperor was the ruler of those colonies. In 1772, the settlers of the colonies revolted against Britain. In history, this revolt is famous as the American Revolution for Independence.

The change in the attitude of the Americans was the main cause of the American Revolution.
Lack of Love for England in Colonies: - The settlers in America never developed confidence in Britain from where they had come. They hated and doubted the British .
Divergent Objectives: - There were divergence and conflict between objectives of the Americans and the British Government on many grounds liked economic, religious and political.

Effects of French Revolution.

Question VI-1-8: Describe the main effects of French Revolution.
"The Revolution of 1789 was the outcome of realities, but it cannot be denied that without the help of enlightenment, it could not have arisen." Discuss.
"The Revolution of 1789 was the outcome of Realities, it can not be denied that without the help of enlightenment it could have not risen." Discuss.
Discuss the main causes responsible for the outbreak of French Revolution of 1789.
What was the main causes of the French Revolution of 1789.

Answer: - In May 1789, Louis XVI had called a session of Estate General to get approval for the reforms to restore the financial order and check the anger which was rising due to hunger. Within three months, a new setup replaced the earlier one and in next three years a totally new setup replaced the monarchical form of governance. Louis XVI was removed. The hunger, new ideas and Estate General were the causes which were seen on the surface of the upheaval. The main reasons lay deep below in the history of France and numerous circumstances, which are discussed as per the followings.

Political Causes
1. Shortcomings of Old Regime: - The contemporary regime had lost it relevance.
It had following shortcomings: -

Arbitrariness of the Kings: - The rulers of France of Bourbon family form Louis XIV to Louis XVI were despots. The main machinery of their operation was ‘Letter de Cachet’. There was no freedom of life and provision for legal remedy.
Weakness of the Local Administration and Total Confusion: - The local administration was full of defects. Originally, France was divided into 40 divisions headed by governors. Since the days of Henry IV, whole of France was divided among the Intendants who were 36 in numbers. There was 12 judicial court of high court level covering the main forty divisions. The jurisdictions of all such administrative division overlapped. In short, there was total confusion in the government.

Different stages in the unification of Italy.

Question. What obstacles stood in the way of the unification of Italy and how were they removed?
Discuss the different stages in the unification of Italy.
Briefly, describe the stages by which the unification of Italy was brought about with special reference to the role of King Victor Emmanuel II and his minister Cavour.

THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE: - Austria had stationed a strong army in Lombardy and Venetia. As long as Austria was there, unification of Italy was not possible.
REACTIONARY RULERS: - The various monarchies, supported by Matternich, were another main hurdle for the unification.
THE VARIOUS PLANS FOR UNIFICATION: - a. Mazzini wanted to establish a Republic of Italy.
b. Geoberti wanted to establish a Federation of Italy under Pope.
c. The House of Savoy wanted to establish a constitutional monarchy under the king of Piedmont – Sardinia.
LACK OF NATIONAL AWAKENING: - " In Italy, provinces are against provinces, towns against towns, families against families and men against men." (Matternich)
PAPAL STATES: - Pope was comfortably entrenched in the middle of Italy. Hence, any revolt by the Italians against the Pope was bound to earn the wrath of Roman Catholic world.
A NEW BACKGROUND FOR UNIFICATION: - Napoleon had joined Italy into a political unit. Lipson had commented, The lesson that Italy was a nation once learnt, was never forgotten."

Ala-ud-din Khalji: 1296-1316

Ala-ud-din Khalji: 1296-1316

He was supported by Malik Chajju, supporters and Khaljis.
He had a pleader in his brother Ulugh Khan.
He was amir-i-tuzak and Governor of Kara Manikpur.
In 1292, he lead an expedition to Malwas and destroyed Bhilsa. He was rewarded with governorship of Avadh.

Devagiri Dream: (I Turkish attack on South 1292)
Devagiri was in the west and Telagna in the east.
Devagiri was ruled by Rama Chandra Deva – Yadav King
Ala-ud-din attacked Devagiri with 8000 horses in 1294.
It was the first Turkish attack on the South.
Jalaludin was murdered near Kara Manikpur on July 19, 1296.

His Early Difficulties:
He was considered usurper.
He faced Jalani nobles who were supporters of Jalal-ud-din Firoz Shah.
Ahmad Chap and Malika-i-Jahan and Rukun-ud-din Ibrahim were stronger oppossers.
Mongols were on Northwest frontier.

Occupation of Delhi:
There appeared difference between Arkali and Qadir. It prompted Ala-ud-din to reach Delhi and defeated Qadir Ibrahim. Malka-i-Jahan and Qadir escaped to Multan where Arkali lived estranged. Ala-ud-din was appointed Sultan on October 3, 1296.

Monday, March 28, 2011



Q.    for the Karachi session of Indian National Congress in 1931, presided over by Sardar Patel,
who drafted the Resolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Programme?
 (a) Mahatma Gandhi     (b) Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
 (c) Dr. Rajendra Prasad    (d) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
Q. Who among the following were official Congress negotiators with Cripps Mission?
 (a) Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Patel  
 (b) Acharya J. B. Kripalani and C. Rajagopalachari
 (c) Pandit Nehru and Maulana Azad     
 (d) Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Rafi Ahmed Kidwai
Q. Consider the following statements:
 1. The “Bombay Manifesto” signed in 1936 openly opposed the preaching of socialist ideals.
 2. It evoked support from a large section of business community from all across India.
 Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
 (a) 1 only      (b) 2 only
 (c) Both 1 and 2     (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Q. Who among the following Governor General created the Covenanted Civil Service of India
which later came to be known as the Indian Civil Service?
 (a) Warren Hastings     (b) Wellesley
 (c) Cornwallis      (d) William Bentinck
Q. What was the immediate cause for the launch of the Swadeshi movement?
 (a) The partition of Bengal done by Lord Curzon.
 (b) A sentence of 18 months rigorous imprisonment imposed on Lokmanya Tilak.
 (c) The arrest and deportation of Lala Lajput Rai and Ajit Singh, and passing of the Punjab
Colonization Bill.
 (d) Death sentence pronounced on the Chapekar brothers.
Q. Consider the following statements:
 1. Dr. Rajendra Prasad persuaded Mahatma Gandhi to come in Champaran to investigate the
problem of peasants.
 2. Acharya J. B. Kriplani was one of the Mahatma Gandhi’s colleagues in his Champaran
 Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
 (a) 1 only      (b) 2 only
 (c) Both 1 and 2     (d) Neither 1 nor 2

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS-modern India & pakisthan

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS-modern India & pakisthan


Q. In which year War of Independence was fought:
Ans. 1857.
Q. Where Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental school was established:
Ans. Aligarh.
Q. Who established Indian National Congress?
Ans. A.Hume.
Q. When Congress was established?Ans. 1885.
Q. When Sir Syed was born?
Ans. 1817.
Q. When Sir Syed died?
Ans. 1898.
Q. When was Bengal partitioned?
Ans. 1905.
Q. When the partition of Bengal was annulled?
Ans. 1911.
Q. When did Quaid-e-Azam join Muslim League?
Ans. 1913.
Q. When did the First World War started?
Ans. 1914
Q. When did the First World War came to an end?
Ans. 1918.
Q. When did the Muslim League came into existence?
30 September 1906.
Q. Who was the first President of Muslim League?
Ans. Sir Agha Khan.
Q. When did Simla deputation call on Viceroy Lord Minto?
Ans. 1906.
Q. When Minto-Morley Reforms were enforced?
Ans. 1909.
Q. When was Lucknow Pact agreed?
Ans. 1916.
Q. When Jallianwala Bagh incident occurred?
13 April 1919.
Q. When did Khilafat Movement start?
Ans. 1918.
Q. Who was secretary of Khilafat deputation?
Ans. Hasan Muhammad Hayat.
Q. Who was the editor of “Comrade”?
Ans. Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar.
Q. Who was the editor of “Hamdard”?
Ans. Muhammad Ali Jauhar.
Q. Who was the editor of “Al-Hilal”?
Ans. Maulana Azad.
Q. Name the newspaper of Maulana Zafar Ali Khan?
Ans. Zamindar.
Q. When treaty of Severs was signed?
20 August 1920.
Q. Who was Khalifa of Turkey?
Ans. Sultan Abdul Majid.

Q. Non-cooperation Movement was started during the days of?

Ans. Khilafat Movement.
Q. Who was Prime Minister of England during the period of Khilafat Movement?
Ans. Llyde George.
Q. Who issued Fatwa in favour of Khilafat Movement?
Ans. Maulana Azad and Maulana Abdul

Q. Who announced the end of Khilafat Movement?

Ans. Gandhi.
Q. When Princess of Wales visited India?
Ans. November 1921.
Q. When did Tragedy of Chora Churi happen?
4 February 1922.
Q. How many Policemen were burned to death in the Tragedy of Chora Churi?
Ans. 21.
Q. When did Montague visit India?
10 November 1917.
Q. When did Montague-Chelmsford Reforms were introduced in India?
Ans. 1919.
Q. How many members were in the council of state in the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms?
Ans. 60.
Q. When Diarchy was introduced in Indian Act?
Ans. 1919.
Q. When Diarchy was introduced in the 8 provinces of India?
Ans. February 1921.
Q. When Diarchy was introduced in NWFP?
Ans. 1932.
Q. How long Diarchy remained in force in India?
Ans. 1921-1937.
Q. Rowlett Act was enforced on:
Ans. 18 March 1919.
Q. When was the formation of Simon Commission announced?
8 November 1927.
Q. When Quaid-e-Azam said, “This is Parting of Ways”?
Ans. All Parties Conference in
Q. When Quaid-e-Azam presented his 14 points?
Ans. On Muslim League Delhi session 1929.
Q. When did Allama Iqbal Delivered his famous Address in “Allahabad”?
30 December 1930.
Q. When Labour Party came in power in England?
Ans. May 1929.

Q. When First Round Table Conference was called in
12 November 1930.
Q. How many total delegates were in the First Round Table Conference?
Ans. 89.
Q. Who presided over the First Round Table Conference?
Ans. George 5th.

Chronological table of mughal rule

Chronological table of mughal rule


BABUR (1483-1530)
1483 Babur was born at Andijan on 24th February.
1496 Babur led expedition to
Samarkand for the first time.
1498 Babur captured Farghana.
1501 Babur recaptured
1504 Babur captured 
1510 Babur defeated Shaibani Khan.
1512 Ubaidullah defeated Babur.
(1505-24) Babur’s five attacks on Indo-Pakistan. 
1526 First battle of Panipat on April 21.
Battle of Kanwah.
Battle of Chanderi.
Battle of Chagra.
1530 Death of Babur.
HAMAYUN (1530-1556)
1508 Hamayun was born.
1530 Succeeded to throne.
1531 Expedition of Kalinjar.
1532 Battle of Dowrah and siege of Chunar.
1533 War against Afghans.
1535 War with Bahadur Shah.
(1537-40) Wars with Sher Khan.
Battle of Chausa 28th June.
Battle of Kanauj 17th May.
(1540-55) Humayun’s period of exile.
1556 Death of Hamayun.
1472 Sher Shah Suri was born at Bajwara.
1522 Sher Khan joined services as
Bihar ruler.
1527 Sher Khan joined services of Babur. 
1528 Sher Khan left the Mughal court.
1534 Sher Khan defeated Jalal Khan and Mahmud Shah.
(1537-40) Wars with Hamayun.
1539 Sher Khan defeated Hamayun at Chausa.
1540 Sher Khan defeated Hamayun at Kanauj.
1542 Conquest of Malwa.
1543 Conquest of Raisin.
1543 Conquest of
1545 Conquest of Kalinjar.
1545 Death of Sher Shah on May 22.
(1545-53) Islam Shah ruled the throne of
(1553-57) Muhammad Adil.

Chronological table of sultanate period

Chronological table of sultanate period


712 Arab conquest of Sindh.
961 Alaptigin appointed Governor of Khurasan.
977-97 Sabuktgin, King of Ghazni. 
986-87 Sabuktgin attacked Jaipal.
991 Jaipal organized confederacy of rules against Sabuktgin.
998-1030 Mahmud Ghazni.
1000 Mahmud’s first expedition.
1001 Mahmud’s second expedition against Jaipal.
1006 Mahmud’s fourth invasion against Daud, ruler of Multan.
1008 Mahmud’s sixth expedition against Anandpal.
1009 Mahmud’s expedition against Nagarkot.
1010 Mahmud defeated Daud of Multan again.
1014 Mahmud led an expedition against Thaneswar.
1015-1021 Unsuccessful effort to conqueror to Kashmir.
1018-19 Expedition of Mahmud against Qanauj.
1021 Unsuccessful effort to conqueror Kashmir.
1021-22 Mahmud laid siege to Gwalior.
1021-22 Trinochanpal defeated and killed.
1025-26 Mahmud’s expedition against Somnath.
1030-40 Reign of Masud, son of Mahmud.
1037 Conquest of Hansi by Masud.
1059 Ibrahim ascended the throne of Ghazni.
1117 Death of Arslan, the last ruler of Ghazni.
1155 Ala-ud-Din Hussain of Ghour attacked Ghazni and destroyed it.
1168 Death of Ala-ud-Din Hussain.
1175 Invasion against Multan by Muhammad Ghouri.
1179 Muhammad attacked and captured Peshawar.
1181 Muhammad Ghouri forced Khusrau Malik of Lahore to make peace with him.
1182 Muhammad Ghouri invaded Lowe Sindh.
1185-86 Muhammad attacked Punjab again.
1186 Lahore captured by Muhammad Ghouri.
1191 First battle of Tarain and defeat of Muhammad Ghouri by Pirthvi Raj Chauhan.
1192 Second battle of Tarain and defeat of Pirthvi Raj.
1194 Conquest of Qanauj and defeat of Jai Chand.
1195-96 Muhammad Ghouri defeated Bhatti Rajputs.
1197 Conquest of Bihar by Bakhtiar Khilji.
1197-98 Qutb-ud-Din Aibak conquered Badayun.
1202-03 Kalinjar, Mahoba and Khajuraho occupied by Qutb-ud-Din Aibak.
1204-05 Conquest of Bengal by Bakhtiar Khilji.
1205 Failure of Bakhtiar to conqueror Tibet.
1206 Death of Muhammad Ghouri.
1206-90 The Slave Dynasty.




Q. Who was Durgavati?
Ans. She was the ruler of Gondwana and was defeated by Akbar in 1564.
Q. Who was Maham Anga?
Ans. She was the foster mother of Akbar the Great.
Q. Who was Himu?
Ans. A Hindu commander of Adil Shah Suri.
Q. Who was Gulbaden Begum?
Ans. She was the author of “Hamayun Nama” and sister of Mughal King Hamayun.
Q. What was infallibility Decree?
Ans. It was a document signed by Akbar in 1597, which authorized him to act as the supreme arbiter in civil and religious affairs.
Q. What is “Ain-e-Akbari”?
Ans. It is the renowned work of Abul Fazal about the government of Akbar the Great.
Q. What is Sadr-us-Sadr?
Ans. It is an officer of Mughal Administration. He served as a liaison officer between the emperor and the people.
Q. What was the “Fatwa-e-Jahangiri”?
Ans. This is Zia-ud-Din Barni’s book on statecraft.
Q. Who was Shams Siraj Afif?
Ans. He was the author of “Tarikh-e-Firuz Shahi”.
Q. Who was Mirza Haider Dughtat?
Ans. He was a cousin of Babur and author of “Tarikh-e-Rashidi”.
Q. Who was Nadir-ul-Asr Mansur?
Ans. This was a title that Emperor Jahamgir conferred upon his court painter Mansur.
Q. Who was Muhammad Masum Nami?
Ans. He was the governor of Qandhar. He wrote “Tarikh-e-Sindh”.
Q. What is Madrassa Rahimia?
Ans. This Madrassa was established by Shah Abdur Rahim at
Q. Why Nagar Kot is famous?
Ans. It is a sacred Hindu town located in Kangra district.
Q. What was Din-e-Elahi?
Ans. This was a new religion invented by Akbar to create tolerance and love among the people of
Q. Who was Bairam Khan?
Ans. He was a tutor of Hamayun and Akbar. He was chiefly instrumental in the victory of Mughals over Hamu in 1556.
Q. Who was Noor Jahan?
Ans. She was beloved Queen of Jahangir. She was an accomplished lady and assisted her husband in the affairs of state.
Q. Who was Abul al Fazl?
Ans. He was a son of Sheikh Mubarak. He was one of the Nau Ratans of Akbar the Great. He wrote “Akbar-Nama”.
Q. What is Fatwa-e-Alamgiri?
Ans. This is a famous work of Islamic Jurisprudence compiled by a board of Ulema, during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Q. Who was Sheikh Saleem Chishti?
Ans. He was a Muslim Saint of Fatehpur Sikri, who was contemporary of Akbar the Great.
Q. Who was Francis Bernier?
Ans. He was a European traveler, who visited
India during Shah Jahan’s period.
Q. Who wrote “Muntakhbat Tawarikh”?
Ans. Abdul Qadir Badayuni.
Q. Who is Khan-e-Saman?
Ans. He was incharge of emperor’s department of manufactures and good for military and democratic purposes.
Q. Who was Baqi Billah Bairang?
Ans. He was a renowned Saint of Naqshbandia order and was the spiritual guide of Hazrat Mujaddad Alfsani.
Q. Who wrote “Kitab-ul-Hind”?
Ans. It was written by Al-Baruni. This is an authentic source about Indian culture and social l
Q. The follies that Hamayun had committed during the conduct of two military campaigns, on account of which he lost his empire to Sher Shah Suri, were against:
Ans. Gujrat and
Q. Battle of Chausa was fought in:
Ans. 1539 A.D.
Q. After recapturing Delhi and his second coronation in Delhi, Hamayun could only rule for:
Ans. Six months.
Q. At the time of his coronation at Kalanaur the age of Akbar was:
Ans. Thirteen and a half.
Q. Akbar’s marriage with the princess of Amber was unique because:
Ans. This was a voluntary alliance different from the forced marriages of Muslim rulers with the Rajput princesses.
Q. Within two years of his marriage with the Amber Princess (1562) the liberal measures taken by Akbar were:
a. Prohibition on the enslavement of prisoners of war and their forcible conversion to Islam (1562).
b. Withdrawal of pilgrim taxes throughout the Mughal Empire (1564).
c. Total withdrawal of Jeziah from the Hindus (1564)
Ans. All of the above.
Q. Akbar wanted to establish friendship with the Rajputs because:
a. Friendship with the Rajputs was politically immensely fruitful.
b. With the Mughal links with
Central Asia having been completely snapped, Akbar had to made friendly alliances in India.
c. He wanted to make peaceful Rajputana a stepping-stone for his Gujrat and
Deccan conquests.
Ans. All of the above.
Q. The main elements of Akbar’s Rajput policy were:
a. Establishment of matrimonial alliances with the Rajputs.
b. Grant of full autonomy and protection to the Rajput states.
c. Appointment of Rajput chiefs as Mansabdars and governors.
Ans. All of the above.
Q. Mewar refused to accept the friendship of the Mughals because:
a. Mewar had hostility with the Mughals since the days of Rana Sanga.
b. There were hostile relations between Mewar and Amber, which had entered into matrimonial alliance with the Mughals.
c. Mewar considered it dishonorable to accept friendship of the Mughals.
Ans. All of the above.
Q. The Mughal troops captured Chittor in 1568 after defeating:
Ans. Rana Uday Singh.
Q. According to Abul Fazl the decisive battle between Rana Partab was foght at:
Ans. Haldighat.
Q. The most valuable acquisition of Akbar in the Northwest frontier was:
Ans. Qandhar.
Q. Akbar was hostile to the Portuguese because:
a. They were cruel and aggressive pirates.
b. They interfered with Hajj pilgrimages.
c. They had formed political alliances with the rulers of the
Deccan states.
Ans. All of the above.
Q. After the conquest of Asirgarh in 1601, Akbar renamed Khandesh as:
Ans. Danadesh.
Q. The Jesuit missionary who held personal discussions with Akbar and has written interesting account of him was:
Ans. Antony Monserrate.
Q. A contemporary Mughal historian who prepared a list of charges against Akbar and called him the enemy of Islam, was:
Ans. Badayuni.
Q. The well know work “Tabaqat-e-Akbari” was written by:
Ans. Khawaja Nizam-ud-Din Ahmad
Q. Which of the following was considered the head of the nobility in Mughal administration?
Ans. Mir Bakshi.
Q. Which of the following officers were guardian of Islamic Law and spokesman of the Ulema?
Ans. Sadr-us-Sudur.
Q. Which of the following officers was the Auditor General?
Ans. Mustaufi.
Q. Which of the following officer in charge of petitions presented to the emperor?
Ans. Mir Arz.
Q. Which of the following was the Superintendent of the Imperial Workshop?
Ans. Nazir-e-Bayutat.
Q. Which of the following has given the correct description of the subdivisions of the Mughal Empire in the proper descending order?
Ans. Subah, sarkar, pagana.
Q. Who divided the Mughal Empire into provinces for the first time?
Ans. Akbar.
Q. Manuehi was a European traveler who came to the court of:
Ans. Jahangir.
Q. The European travelers who visited Indian during the reign of Jahangir and left valuable account of his reign was/were:
a. William Finch
b. William Hawkins.
c. Francisco Palsaert.
Ans. All of the above.
Q. The Marathas came to be admitted to the nobility during the reign of:
Ans. Jahangir.
Q. A Mansab was allotted to:
Ans. All officers of the state.
Q. The range of the Mansabs as organized by Akbar was:
Ans. 10 to 10,000.
Q. Who after raising a successful rebellion, made Jahangir captive in his own camp?
Ans. Mahabat Khan.
Q. Each grade in Mansabdari system had two aspects to it: (i). Zat (personal) and (ii). Sawar (cavalryman). Which of the following statements correctly describes their significance?
Ans. Zat fixed the personal status of a person and his salary, while Sawar rank indicated the number of cavalryman he was required to maintain.
Q. A Mughal Queen whose name was written to all the Mughal Farmans and inscribed on the coins, was:
Ans. Noor Jahan.
Q. The clique of four persons who ruled the Mughal Empire from 1611 to 1621 comprised:
Ans. Noor Jahan, Asaf Khan, Itmad-du-daulah and Asaf Khan.
Q. Which of the following was incharge of law and order in the villages?
Ans. Muqaddam.
Q. The Mughal Emperor who allowed a chain with bells to be hung outside his place to enable petitioners to bring their grievances to the notice of the emperor was:
Ans. Jahangir.
Q. Under the Zabti system the most fertile land was classified as:
Ans. Polaj.
Q. What portion of actual produce was fixed as the demand of the state under the Zabti system?
Ans. One-third.
Q. Akbar founded the city of Fatehpur Sikri to commemorate:
Ans. Victory of Gujrat.