Saturday, April 16, 2011




EARLY VEDIC AGE (1500- 1000B.C)

-Knew nothing about sea

Social Condition
- Semi nomadic and pastoral people
- Women equal to man
- Well established institution of marriage
- Division of class ‘ Aryan and Dasyu’

Staple crop: Barley and barley only (Yava)

Coins Unknown: Barter system was practiced.

War: Known as ‘Gavishthi’- in search of cows

‘Ayas”:- For copper and bronze
- No clear evidence of trade
- Knew Gold but not silver

Indus Valley Civilisation-Points to Remember

Indus Valley Civilisation-Points to Remember



Three cultural stages

1) Paleolithic: (Old stone age) first stone tools (Fire)

2) Mesolithic: Hunting and food gathering

3) Neolithic: Man-made tools made by grinding and polishing, agriculture (Indus Valley)

4) Chalcolithic: Use of metals eg copper

: Indus valley civilization belongs to Bronze Age also called Harappan civilization.

Indus valley period: 2400 to 1700 B.C.



1-Yusuf Adil Shah was killed by KrishnaDeva Raya(KDR) in the Battle of Kovilkonda
2-KDR was known as Andhra Bhoja whereas Allasani Peddana was known as Andhra Kavita Pitamaha
3-Tenali Rama who wrote Panduranga Mahamattya, adorned the court of KDR
4-Tirumalamma was a famous poetess in the court of Achyuta Deva
5-During Virupaksha II Orissa became a part of Vijaynagar empire for the first time
6-Amuktamalyada written by KDR in Telegu was a book on polity
7-Siddhya was the tax collected in cash

Thursday, April 14, 2011

DELHI SULTANAT-some points

DELHI SULTANAT-some points

1-Iltutmish belonged to the Ilbari tribe
2-Nizam ul Mulk Junaidi came into prominence during Iltutmish
3-Fakhruddin was the chief kotwal of Delhi under Balban
4-Apart from Mohd Bin Tughlak Nasir udduin Mahmood too was a great caligraphist
5-Imaduddiin conspired against Balban in 1353-54
6-Balban separated army from civil administration and created arz i mamalik
7-Hauz shamshi was built by Iltutmish
8-Abdullah the grandson of Hlaku Khan invaded India during Jalaluddin Khalji
9-Malik Qabul was the shuhna i mandi under Alauddin
10-Ulugh Khan a mongol accepted Islam under Jalaluddin

MUGHAL INDIA-some points

MUGHAL INDIA-some points
1-Mubarak Khan whose father was killed in the battle of Macchiwara killed Bairam Khan
2-When Hemu captured Delhi Tardi Khan was the governor there
3-The first mention of Tauhid i Ilahi was in Dabistan i Mazahib by Mohsin Fani
4-Diwan i Tan was the official who was in charge of cash salary
5-Increase in the sawar of the mansabdars during emergency was known as mashruta
6-The reserved Armed force was known as Tabinan
7-Total land revenue figures of a village was known as taqsimat
8-Akbar reimposed Jeziyah in 1575 and revoked it in 1580
9-Although the Kangra mission of Jahangir in 1620 was led by Vikramjit Baghela, a Hindu,Jahangir called it a Jihaad

Wednesday, April 13, 2011




Provisions of 1773 Act
a-Court of Directors hitherto elected every year would be elected for 4 years
b-Total number of Directors 24,one fourth retiring every year
c-A Governor General in Bengal with four members to assist him and the quorum was 3
d-The member of Governor Generals EC to hold office for 5 years
e-The Governor General will have authority over Madras and Bombay
f-Supreme court was created
g-The court was given both original and appellate jurisdiction

Provisions of 1784 Act
a-A Board of Control with 6 members
b-Court of Directors retained real executive power and patronage and Board of control no power of patronage
c-The members of Governor Generals EC was reduced to 3
d-Only Covenanted servants will be appointed as members of the Council of Governor General
e-The Presidencies of Bombay and Madras were subordinated to the Governor General
f-Prohibition of aggressive wars and treaties with Indian princes

Asoka Dhamma

Asoka Dhamma


There is no doubt that Ashoka's personal religion was Buddhism. In his Bhabru edict he says he had full faith in Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha. He showed respect to all sects and faiths and believed in using among ethical and moral values of all sects. In Rock Edict VII he says all seeks desire both self control and purity of mind. In Rock Edict XII he pronounces his policy of equal respect to all religious sects more clearly.

The Dhamma as explained in Ashoka's edicts is not a religion or a religious system but a moral law, a common code of conduct or an ethical order. 
In Pillar Edict IIAshoka himself puts the question what is Dhamma? 




R C Dutt: Economic history of India
Dadabhai Naoroji: Poverty and unbritish rule in India.

Drain of wealth refers to a portion of national product of India, which was not available for consumption of its people.


: Heavy taxation, Zamindari and monopoly.
Political: Doctrine of lapse
Military: Religious interference of soldiers and low salary.

Centers of Revolt
 Bhadur Shah II, General Bakht Khan
Kanpur: Nana Sahib, Tantiya Tope
Lucknow: Begum Hazrat Mahal
Jhansi: Rani Laxmibai
Bareilly: Khan Bahadur Khan
Bihar: Kunwar Singh.

Who said what about 1857 revolt:
Disraeli (opposition leader): A national Revolt
V D Savarkar: First war of Independence



Later Vedic Age ( 1000-600 BC)
- Later Vedic Age- Also known as PGW (Painted Grey Ware)- Iron Age

- They knew two seas- The Arabian and the Indian Ocean
- Gandak was known as 'Sadanira'
- Position of Women Declined
- Earliest reference to four ashrams or four stages of life- found in 'Jabala Upanishad'


1. Brahma: Marriage of a duly dowried girl to a man of the same verna.
2. Daiva: Father gives the daughter to the priest as a part of his fee.
3. Arsa: A Token bride price of a cow and a bull is given as dowry.
4. Prajapati: Marriage- without dowry and bride price.
5. Gandharva: By consent of two parties analogous to modern love marriage.
6. Asura: Marriage by Purchase
7. Rakshsa: Marriage by Capture
8. Paishacha: Seduction of a girl while asleep, mentally deranged or drunk.



1-Quit India Movement (Bharat Chhodo Andolan or the August Movement) was a civil disobediencemovement launched in India in August 1942.
2-By 1942, Indians were divided over World War II.
3-At the outbreak of war, the Congress Party had during the Wardha meeting of the working-committee in September 1939, passed a resolution conditionally supporting the fight against fascism.
4-After the onset of the war, only a group led by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose took any decisive action. Bose organized the Indian National Army with the help of the Japanese, and, soliciting help from theAxis Powers.


Virendranath Chattopadhyaya also called  Chatto (1880 — September 2, 1937, Moscow) was a prominent Indian revolutionary who aimed to overthrow the British Raj in India by using violence as a tool.
His childhood nickname was Binnie or Biren. Virendranath was the eldest son of Dr. Aghorenath Chattopadhyaya (Chatterjee), who was an ex-principal and professor of science at the Nizam College, in Hyderabad. Aghorenath’s other children Sarojini Naidu and Harindranath Chattopadhyay were famous poets. Viren received a secular and liberal education. He was a polyglot and was fluent in the Indian languages Telugu, Tamil, Bengali, Urdu, Persian, Hindi, as well as English; later he was to learn French, Italian, German, Dutch, Russian and the Scandinavian languages as well. He matriculated in theUniversity of Madras and received an undergraduate degree in Arts from the University of Calcutta. In Kolkata, through his other sister Gannu or Mrinalini, who was already known to be an advanced Nationalist, Viren was introduced to Bejoy Chandra Chatterjee, a barrister who was also known as an extremist. He was also introduced to Sri Aurobindo’s family, especially his cousins, Kumudini and Sukumar Mitra; the former was editor of the seditious magazine, Suprabhat. For years afterwards, Viren maintained contact with all of them.

Monday, April 11, 2011

Economy and Polity in Ancient India 4th c. B.C.

Economy and Polity in Ancient India 4th c. B.C.

Agricultural production

In this section, we discuss the tranformations in agricultural production in ancient India. From the early vedic period to the later vedic times, there were changes in the economic activities of the people. Initially, people followed pastoralism. But later they began to appreciate the uses of agricultural production.
Initially, the tribes were nomadic and moved from one place to the other. But later, with the emergence of settled life on Ganges valley, agricultural production became important.
Sixth century B.C. is considered the age of second urbanization. This process is linked with the emergence of agricultural production and the emergence of many towns.

Mahajanapadas: Towards State Formation

Mahajanapadas: Towards State Formation

To begin with, there existed political units like jana which later became janapada – mahajanapada. A jana was a region where there lived the people of the tribe. These tribes were named after a particular chieftain. Later, with the extension of territory, there was a change in the nature of political organization.
In the texts we find references to the emergence of sixteen mahajanapadas. Important among them were Magadha, Kosala, Kasi, Avanti, Vaishali, Licchavi, etc. Mahajanapadas were of two kinds, as discussed below.

Ancient Indian Religion: Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy:

.Ancient Indian Religion: Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy:
The vedic religion or Brahmanism was the orthodox religion. The new faiths established in 6th century B.C. like Jainism, Buddhism, Charvakas, Ajavikas, were heterodox religions.
To begin with, Vedic religion always gave a lot of importance to animal sacrifices called yajnas. This practice was suitable in a cattle dominated economy. However, this practice of sacrificing cattle was not suitable for an agrarian economy as cattle was required for agricultural production.
After the 6th century B.C., there was transition from pastoralism to agricultural production. There was a need for more cattle. But the vedic sacrifices destroyed the cattle wealth. This was resented by common folk and the philosophy of new religions gave a solution to their grievances.

Emergence of Social Classes In Ancient India

Emergence of Social Classes In Ancient India
In ancient India we find reference to four classes or varnas. They are Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. The literary meaning of varnas is colour or complexion. These different varnas did not emerge at a single point of time. It took several years for these four varnas to emerge and exist in ancient India. Romila Thapar says that initially there existed certain lineages. Among them there were junior lineages and senior lineages. The latter were those which were able to dominate in the society.
The most important sections were the brahmanas and the rajanyas. The brahmanas were the priestly class who performed cattle and other animal sacrifices for the benefit of society. They, in a way, supported the ruling class. The rajanyas were the ruling class. Out of this category later emerged kshatriyas. The word kshatra meant power. During this period there existed intra tribal and inter tribal conflicts. Out of these conflicts emerged certain important clans like kurus.

Ancient India in 4th Century B.C

Ancient India in 4th Century B.C.
Before 4th century B.C. there existed the major civilization called the Vedic civilization. The Vedic civilization is divided into two segments: 1. early vedic civilization and 2. later vedic civilization. The main source for studying this civilization is the Vedic literature.
In the early vedic civilization we get the picture of a society which depended on primitive economic activities like pastoralism, nomadic life and worship of different deities. It is said that the Vedi people gradually obtained the knowledge regarding the art of agricultural production. Now they started to migrate and settle on the fertile river valleys. The increased agricultural production led to competition among different dominant social groups to control economy and society. There emerged social divisions which led to the emergence of varna and jati system.

State Formation - South India

State Formation - South India

In South India there was transformation in the polity, economy and society. Initially there existed the primitive society but later there was transformation of pre state society into state society. In the primitive society there did not exist the various features of the state system like a standing army, systematic revenue collection, territory, population, etc.
The reference to existence of megalithic settlements and existence of tribal set up as mentioned in Sangam literature indicates the prevalence of pre state society and polity. There were certain changes in the society and polity. Such transformation is recorded the group of Tamil literature called Sangam literature.



The presence or absence of the horse in the Indus-Sarasvati civilization has beena bone of contention for decades, especially in the context of the Aryan invasiontheory. The argument is familiar: the Rig-Veda uses the wordashva over 200times,ergo the Vedic society must have been full of horses,ergo the Harappancivilization, from which the noble animal is conspicuously absent, must be pre-Vedic and non-Aryan. The horse must therefore have been brought into Indiaaround 1500 BCE by the invading Aryans, who used its speed to crushingadvantage in order to subdue the native, ox-driven populations. This line ofreasoning is regarded as so evident and foolproof that it is taken to be the finalword on the issue; as a result, we find it confidently repeated in reference booksand history textbooks dealing with India’s prehistory.

Theories Regarding the Origin of European Feudalism

Theories Regarding the Origin of European Feudalism

In 1887 a German Historian Brunner,concentrating on the military aspects, traced the genesis of feudalism to the horse stirrup. He argued that in 733 A.D, the emperor of France (then called Gaull, Charles Martin),defeated the Arabs in a battle at Poitiers near Paris. However, Martin could not pursue the Arabs because his army consisted primarily of infantry, whereas the Arab soldiers escaped on the far more mobile horsebacks.Martin realized the need for introducing a large segment of cavalry in his defence forcer.` Maintaining a cavalry, however, was after all a more expensive proposition than an infantry. For this Martel needed more resources. Land being the chief resource in pre-modern societies, the Emperor began by acquiring land from those who had a great deal of it - the Church for example.