Saturday, April 30, 2011




1. Wonder that was India - A.L. Bhashem.
2. Ancient India Social and Culture - Luniya
3. Ancient India - an introductory outline - D.N.Jha.
4. An Advanced History of India - R.C. Majumda, H.C. Raychaudhurai, - Kalikinkar Datta.
5. Ancient India - L.Mukherjee


1. Advanced study in the History of Medival India - Volume I, II, III J.L. Mehta
2. Medival India - Volume I & II Satish Chandra
3. Wonder that was India - Rizzvi
4. Medival India - L. Mukherjee


1. Modern Indian History - Groover & Grooover.
2. A struggle for Independence - Bipin Chandra
3. Freedom Struggle - Bipinchandra
4. Modern India - L. Mukherjee
VIII, IX, X,XI,XII History


1. Indian History - Krishna Reddy
2. Indian History - Agnihotri
3. Competition Wizard Workbook.
4. IGNOU Material
5. Y.D.Mishra

1-NCERT (11th)
2-The Advanced History of India - Majumdar, Raychaudhuri & Datta
3-The wonder that was India - A. L Bashaon
4-Indus Civilization - (a) IGNOU booklet no. 2
5-The rise of civilization of India and Pakistan - Bridget and Raymond Allchin
6-Ancient India in historical outline (Revised and enlarged edition - 98) - D.N. Jha
7-Mauryan : Ashoka and the decline of mouryan empire - Romila Thapar
8-Indian Feudalism - R.S. Sharma
1-NCERT (11th)
2-The Advanced History of India - Majumdar, Raychaudhuri & Datta
3-Social life and cultural life of both Delhi Sultanate and Mughal India - J.L. Mehta
4-A history of South India - K. A. Nilakanta Shastri
5-IGNOU material (specially on agriculture and agrarian relations and culture)
1-NCERT (12th)
2-A new look into the modern Indian history - B.L Grover
3-Freedom struggle - Bipin Chandra, Varun Dey and Amlesh Tripathy (NBT)
4-India's struggle for independence - Bipin Chandra
5-Modern India - Sumit Sarkar
6-IGNOU material (specially on freedom struggle)

Friday, April 29, 2011



The Brahma Samaj was a theistic organisation founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy, an educated Bengali, at Calcutta in 1828. It was initially known as the "Brahmo Sabha". Two factors contributed to the formation of the Brahmo Samaj during the 19th century. Firstly the Hindu social system had begun to stagnate and placed too much emphasis on traditional rituals. Secondly, an English educated class of Indians began to emerge to fulfill the administrative and economic needs of British rule.

Zortalab-Medieval India: The feudal system

Medieval India: The feudal system
During the Mughal period, the jagirdari  (feudal) system flourished under which Mughal rulers awarded jagir (landed property) to their nobles/officers instead of paying them regular salary. However, the jagir was neither hereditary nor permanently awarded to them. Often, these nobles and officers were transferred from one place to another and likewise in their new place of appointment a jagir was transferred to them. This usually made them more powerful and richer than the locals.

Thursday, April 28, 2011



1. Tarikh-e-Farishta was written by:
Ans. Muhammad Qasim.

2. Zaheer-ud-Din Babur had:
Ans. Three Daughter.

3. How many times Mahmud invaded India?
Ans. Seventeen.

4. Divan-e-Arz under Muslim Sultans dealt with offices of:
Ans. Army.

5. Sultan Aram Shah belonged to:

a. Khilji Dynasty b. Taghluq Dynasty c. Suri Dynasty d. None of these.
Ans. d. None of these.

6. Fatwa-e-Alamgiri was edited by:
a. Adat Sultan b. Molvi Nabi Beg c. Abdul Haq d. None of these.
Ans. d. None of these.

7. Jalaluddin Khwarizm Shah came to India during the reign of:
Ans. Iltumish.

8. Sultan Rukn-ud-Din Firoz Shah belonged to the dynasty of:
Ans. Khilji Dynasty.

9. Deccan was conquered first under:
Ans. Ala-ud-Din Khilji.

10. Abu Rehan Alberuni was a:
a. Painter b. Poet c. Administrator d. None of these.
Ans. d. None of these.

11. “Tabqaat-e-Nasiri” was a book on:
Ans. History.

12. Jital was an item of:
Ans. Currency.

13. Ibn-e-Batuta by birth was a:
Ans. Moorish.

14. Nizam-ud-Din Auliya flourished during the reign of:
Ans. Akbar.

15. Guru Nanak lived during the reign of:
a. Babur b. Jehangir c. Akbar d. None of these.
Ans. Babur.

OBJECTIVE-Muslim’s History

OBJECTIVE-Muslim’s History

i. Hoysals.
Ans. A Kingdom of South during Ala-ud-Din Khilji’s period.

ii. Raja Tarangini.
Ans. It is a book on history of Kashmir written by Pandit Kachan.

iii. Koshak-e-Siri.
Ans. This was the name of the Palace of Ala-ud-Din.

iv. Ustad Isa.
Ans. He was the Chief Architect of Taj Mahal Agra.

v. Iqta’s.
Ans. A piece of land granted by the ruler to some of his subjects for his services.

vi. Mahabat Khan
Ans. He was a renowned General of Jahangir. He arrested Jahangir and Noor Jahan.

vii. Malik Kafur.
Ans. He was a General of Ala-ud-Din Khilji. He conquered Deccan.

viii. Kaiqubad.
Ans. He was son of Bughra Khan.

ix. Alai Darwaza.
Ans. It was the structure constructed by Ala-ud-Din Khilji near Qutb Minar in 1311 A.D.

x. Padmavat.
Ans. It is the work of Malik Muhammad Jaisi.

xi. Demetrios.
Ans. He was an Indo-Greek King who ruled from 165 to 180 B.C.

xii. Tehrik-e-Alfi.
Ans. It was a history written by a team of historians during the reign of Akbar.

xiii. Mir Jumla.
Ans. He was a minister of Sultan Qutb Shah of Golkonda. Later on he joined the Mughals and served them in Deccan.

xiv. Muntakhab-ul-Lubab.
Ans. It was the history written by Kafi Khan during the reign of Aurangzeb.

xv. Nasir-ud-Din Qubacha.
Ans. He was a lieutenant of Muhammad Ghouri and served as Governor of Multan.

xvi. Durgavati.
Ans. She was the ruler of Gondwana and was defeated by Akbar in 1564 A.D.
xvii. Maham Anaga.
Ans. She was the foster mother of Akbar the Great.

xviii. Himu.
Ans. He was the Hindu Commander of Adil Shah Suri. He occupied Delhi but was defeated by Akbar in second battle of Panipat in 1556.

xix. Gulbadan Begum.
Ans. She was the sister of Mughal King Hamayun. She wrote “Hamayun Nama”.

xx. Infallibility Decree.
Ans. It was a document signed by Akbar in 1597, which authorized him to act as the supreme arbitrator in civil and ecclesiastical affairs.



Q. In which year War of Independence was fought:
Ans. 1857.

Q. Where Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental school was established:
Ans. Aligarh.

Q. Who established Indian National Congress?
Ans. A.Hume.

Q. When Congress was established?Ans. 1885.

Q. When Sir Syed was born?
Ans. 1817.

Q. When Sir Syed died?
Ans. 1898.

Q. When was Bengal partitioned?
Ans. 1905.

Q. When the partition of Bengal was annulled?
Ans. 1911.

OBJECTIVE TYPE-Muslim’s History

OBJECTIVE TYPE-Muslim’s History

Q. Who was Durgavati?
Ans. She was the ruler of Gondwana and was defeated by Akbar in 1564.

Q. Who was Maham Anga?
Ans. She was the foster mother of Akbar the Great.

Q. Who was Himu?
Ans. A Hindu commander of Adil Shah Suri.

Q. Who was Gulbaden Begum?
Ans. She was the author of “Hamayun Nama” and sister of Mughal King Hamayun.

Q. What was infallibility Decree?
Ans. It was a document signed by Akbar in 1597, which authorized him to act as the supreme arbiter in civil and religious affairs.

Q. What is “Ain-e-Akbari”?
Ans. It is the renowned work of Abul Fazal about the government of Akbar the Great.

Q. What is Sadr-us-Sadr?
Ans. It is an officer of Mughal Administration. He served as a liaison officer between the emperor and the people.

Q. What was the “Fatwa-e-Jahangiri”?
Ans. This is Zia-ud-Din Barni’s book on statecraft.

Q. Who was Shams Siraj Afif?
Ans. He was the author of “Tarikh-e-Firuz Shahi”.

Q. Who was Mirza Haider Dughtat?
Ans. He was a cousin of Babur and author of “Tarikh-e-Rashidi”.

Q. Who was Nadir-ul-Asr Mansur?
Ans. This was a title that Emperor Jahamgir conferred upon his court painter Mansur.

Objective type-muslim's History

Objective type-muslim's History


i. After the death of Qutb-ud-Din Aibak……..was put on the throne:
Ans. Aaram Shah.

ii. Shams-ud-Din Iltumish led the funeral prayer of:
Ans. Bakhtiar Kaki.

iii. ……….was the last ruler of Slave Dynasty.
Ans. Ghiyas-ud-Din Balban.

iv. After the advent of Muslims in South Asia new Art which emerged is known as:
Ans. Indo-Islamic Art.

v. Tuzk-e-Babari was written in:
Ans. Turkey.

vi. Rana Sanga’s real name was:
Ans. Rana Sangram.

vii. The battle of Kanwah was fought in the year:

Ans. 1527.

viii. Din Panah Palace was raised at Delhi by:
Ans. Hamayun.

ix. Babur’s reign was from 1526 A.D. to……….A.D.
Ans. 1530.

OBJECTIVE TYPE:muslim’s History

OBJECTIVE TYPE:muslim’s History

a. At the time of Muslim invasion in 712 A.D. the town of Daibul was well-protected by:
Ans. Brahmans & Rajputs

b. Alaptigin founded the Ghaznavi Dynasty in:
Ans. 962 A.D.

c. The first expedition of Mahmud Ghaznavi was undertaken against:
Ans. Towns of the Khyber Pass.

d. Jaichand was defeated in 1194 A.D. by:
Ans. Muhammad Ghouri.

e. On his accession to the throne, Iltumish had to fight against:
Ans. Taj-ud-Din Yalduz.

f. The Qutb-ul-Islam mosque was built by:
Ans. Ghiyas-ud-Din Balban.

g. Who contributed largely to the spread of Islam in Bengal:
Ans. Shah Jalal Tabrezi

h. Hamayun left for Persia to get support of Shah in:
Ans. 1543.



712 Arab conquest of Sindh.
961 Alaptigin appointed Governor of Khurasan.
977-97 Sabuktgin, King of Ghazni.
986-87 Sabuktgin attacked Jaipal.
991 Jaipal organized confederacy of rules against Sabuktgin.
998-1030 Mahmud Ghazni.
1000 Mahmud’s first expedition.
1001 Mahmud’s second expedition against Jaipal.
1006 Mahmud’s fourth invasion against Daud, ruler of Multan.
1008 Mahmud’s sixth expedition against Anandpal.
1009 Mahmud’s expedition against Nagarkot.
1010 Mahmud defeated Daud of Multan again.
1014 Mahmud led an expedition against Thaneswar.
1015-1021 Unsuccessful effort to conqueror to Kashmir.
1018-19 Expedition of Mahmud against Qanauj.
1021 Unsuccessful effort to conqueror Kashmir.
1021-22 Mahmud laid siege to Gwalior.
1021-22 Trinochanpal defeated and killed.
1025-26 Mahmud’s expedition against Somnath.
1030-40 Reign of Masud, son of Mahmud.
1037 Conquest of Hansi by Masud.
1059 Ibrahim ascended the throne of Ghazni.
1117 Death of Arslan, the last ruler of Ghazni.
1155 Ala-ud-Din Hussain of Ghour attacked Ghazni and destroyed it.
1168 Death of Ala-ud-Din Hussain.
1175 Invasion against Multan by Muhammad Ghouri.
1179 Muhammad attacked and captured Peshawar.
1181 Muhammad Ghouri forced Khusrau Malik of Lahore to make peace with him.
1182 Muhammad Ghouri invaded Lowe Sindh.
1185-86 Muhammad attacked Punjab again.
1186 Lahore captured by Muhammad Ghouri.
1191 First battle of Tarain and defeat of Muhammad Ghouri by Pirthvi Raj Chauhan.
1192 Second battle of Tarain and defeat of Pirthvi Raj.



son of a turkish noble of the ilbar tribe but as a child was captured by Mongols and sold as slave at Ghazni,bought by Iltutmush in 1232.

*literally educated...he introduced the persian culture of zaminbos that is lying flat one's face before the emperor.

*He was initially the prime minister sultan Nasir ud din Mahmud from 1246 to 1266.He ascended throne of Nasir in 1266 at age of 60 as he had no male heir.

*During his reign,Balban ruled with an iron fist.He broke up the chahelgan(a group of forty most important nobles)

*tried to establish peace and order in india

* built many outposts in areas where there was crime and garrisoned them with the soldiers.

*Balban wanted to make everyone loyal to the crown by establishing an efficient espionage system.

*He had a strong and well organized spy system.He placed secret reporters and news writers in every department.The spies were independent authority only answerable to sultan.

*strict administrator of justice,didnt show any partiality..

about his justice Dr.Ishwari prasad remarked,

So great was the dread of sultan's inexorable justice that no one dared to ill treat his servant and slaves.

*successor was his grand son,Muizuddin Qaiqabad

*Mongols had advanced many times and plundered Lahore.In order to check their invasion,Balban built new forts and ordered the repair of old ones.He deployed the best of his

troops on the northern borders to check the mOngols.His policies paid off,as he managed to stop the MOngol threat from advancing into his territories.

*In last days of Balban,Tughral baig,the governor of Bengal revolted against him.Balban sent an army who was defeated then Balban decided to

lead an attack against the rebellion leader.He re conquered Bengal,appointed his son Bughra khan as the governor of Bengal.

Sultan Mahmud Ghazani

Sultan Mahmud Ghazani

--Born in 979. died on April 30 1030.

--Predecessor was Subuktageen,successor was Masud Ghazanvi

--one of the greatest conquerors the world has ever seen. 

--never defeated in a battlefield. 

--titles of Yamin-ud-Dawlah and Amin-ul-Millah

--Mahmud became the Sultan of Ghazni in 998. 

--He fought against the strong forces of Jaipal, Annadpal, Tarnochalpal, Kramta and the joint forces of Hindu Rajas

--The battle against Jaipal was the beginning of a long series of attacks by Mahmud against South Asia.

--he attacked Somnath and crushed the Hindu headquarter of political intrigue(backbone of the Hindus).



*successor of Babur
*born on 17 March,1508 in Kabul
*died on 27 januaray,1556 in Delhi(by falling from stairs of his library)
*His successor was his son Akbar

Personality Traits

--Unlike his father he was a cultivated gentleman
--unrivalled in the science of Astrology and Mathematics
--Deeply superstitious(relied upon movements of planets,entered a house with his left foot going forwards)
--Mild and benevolent in character,tolerant
--charitable and magnificent personality

character sketch of Zahiruddin Babur

character sketch of Zahiruddin Babur

* Founder of Mughal Empire in India
*Born on 14th Feb,1483 at a town called Andijan that is located in present day Uzbekistan.
*Died on Dec 26,1530 in Agra,burried at Kabul.
*Belonged to the Mongol Tribe from mother's side and Timur Shah from father's side.
*His successor was his son Humayun.


--Military Genius,Skill ful warrior,Able administrator,lover of fine arts and poetry,noble and kind hearted,humble an good humored.
--A poetic genius and his creations have been compiled as an autobiography known as Babur_namah.
--A witty person who had a streak of adventure and a keen eye for natural beauty.
--showed typical Turkish characteristics




The central feature of the agrarian system under the Mughals was the alienation from the peasant of his surplus produce (produce over and above the subsistence level) in the form of land revenue which was the main source of state's income. Early British administrators regarded the land revenue as rent of the soil because they had a notion that the king was the owner of the land. Subsequent studies of Mughal India have shown that it was a tax on the crop and was thus different from the land revenue as conceived by the British. Abul Fazl in his Ain-i Akbari justifies the imposition of taxes by the state saying that these are the remuneration of sovereignty, paid in return for protection and justice.
The Persian term for land revenue during the Mughal rule was mal and mal wajib. Kharaj was not in regular use.

Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Rani of Jhansi

Rani of Jhansi

Lakshmi bai, The Rani  of Jhansi (c.19 November 1835 – 17 June 1858), known as Jhansi Ki Rani, the queen of the Maratha-ruled princely state of Jhansi, was one of the leading figures of the First Indian Struggle for Independence, also known as the Indian Rebellion of 1857, and a symbol of resistance to British rule in India. She has gone down in Indian history as a legendary figure, the firebrand who began the Indian Revolution against British Colonialism.


1-He was a famous British journalist and politician.
2-He Published news paper “Manchester Guardian”.
3-This paper supported the Irish Home Rule movement.
4-He was a member of the British parliament.
5-Scott was famous for his statement "comment is free,but facts are sacred”.(During centenary day speech of his paper).
6-it was EDMOND BURKE who called news paper as FOURTH ESTATE.


1-Italian philosopher and critic.
2-Famous critic of laissez fair theory.
3-Greatly influenced Antonio Gramci and colling wood.
4-Author of “ON HISTORY”.
5-To him “History as philosophy in motion”.
6-croce said “All history is contemporary history “.


1-Dionysus was a famous greek historian who flourished during the reign of Augustus Caesar.
2-He was the author of the book “Roman Antiquities”,which describes the history of Rome from the mythical period to the beginning of the first Punic war.
3-Hannibal was the hero in the second Punic war.
4-Punic wars were fought between ancient Carthage (present Tunisia )and roman republic between 264 to 46 BC.
5-According to Dionysus “history in a philosophy teaching by examples”.
6-Thus ,he became the first man to define the term history.

Monday, April 25, 2011

Antonio Gramci

Antonio Gramci
1-Famous Italian writer,politician,original Marxist thinker.
2-Founding member of communist party of Italy.
3-He was imprisoned by Mussolini.
4-Famous for his concept of “cultural Hegemony”.
5-Cultural hegemony means a cultural diverse society can be ruled or dominated by one of its social classes.
6-Gramci coined the term SUBALTERN.
7-Subaltern study group was founded by Ranajit Guha (Guha migrated from india to UK in 1960 and now lives in Vienna.
8-Ranajit Guha wrote”Dominance Without Hegemony”.
9-Shahid Ameen wrote the biography of Ranajit guha.
10-Guha is the editor of the subaltern studies.


1-E H CARR was a famous English Historian and diplomat.
2-Author of famous work “what is history”(1961)and “A history of soviet Russia”, and “Twenty years Crisis”
3-Carr said “study historian before you begin to study history”.
4-In 1919,Carr was part of the British delegates at the Paris peace conference and was involved in drafting parts of the Treaty of Versailles relating to League of Nations.
5-To Carr “History is an unending dialogue between past and present or historian and his facts”.
6-Carr rejected the hypothesis of CLEOPATRA'S NOSE(theory of Pascal).


1-German historian of 19th century.
2-Developed a methodology in history.
3-Title Von was given by the Prussian government.
5-He is the first man to start critical study about the sources(HERMENEUTICS).
6-He is known as the FATHER OF ACADEMIC HISTORY.
7-History became a scientific subject because of the contribution of ranke.
8-Ranke published one of the earliest historical journal HISTORISCHE ZEIT SCHRIFT in 1859.
9-He was the man behind the BERLIN REVOLUTION  in history(1)ranke was a teacher at Berlin university(2)He conducted seminars ,published journals,lectures,introduced scientific method in historical study(3)History was professionalized .
10-Ranke wanted to criticize text(textual criticism).

HISTORIOGRAPHY-psc & hsst history


1-Facts are importand for the constuction of history.
2-Anything which gives us some idea about the past or present or future can be termed as fact.
3-it is also called sources.
4-sources are two kinds PRIMARY AND SECONDARY.
5-Primary or Direct sources are anything which gives us information directly.
6-Secondary sources or Indirect sources provides information indirectly.
7-TERTIARY sources are used to describe a work which is a compilation of primary and secondary sources.It focused on the identification of scholarly work than on content.for example:bibliography,library catalog,directories etc.
8-That is why RANKE said”NO SOURCES,NO HISTORY”.
9-To Ranke “all kinds of sources should be subjected to criticism.
10-HEURISTICS  means searching of facts or sources.
11-HERMENEUTICS aims to find out the authenticity or veracity of the sources.
12-DEDUCTIVE METHOD is a type of reasoning from general  to particular.
13-INDUCTIVE METHOD is a reasoning from particular to general(GENERALISATION).

Euripides-psc hsst & ugc history

1-Author of the play”trojan women”,a great greek tragedy
2-Trojan women is a work which tells about the conquest of Aegian island by Athens.
3-Trojan women is written in 415 BC.
4-It depicts the deeds of 4 trojan women in the trojan war.
5-In 441 BC ,euripides won prize at the DIONYSIA,a famouse Athenian dramatical festival.
6-Euripides wrote a satire play called CYCLOPS.
7-Dionysia was a large religious festival in ancient Athens held in the honour of God DIONYSIUS.
8-Trojan women was produced during peloponnician war.
9-Peloponicain war was a war between Athens and Sparta(peloponician league),in which sparta became victorious.
10-Thucydides wrote a work called “peloponnician war”.
11-Thucydides is considered as the father of scientific historical writing and first economic historian.
12-Herodotus is the father of history, father of Lies,father of ethenography and father of comparative anthropology.
13-Cecero called herodotus as the father of history.
14-It was herodotus who first time called Egypt as the Gift of nile.
15-Herodotus’s book HISTORIA is considered as the first historical work.

Sunday, April 24, 2011

Kerala history -timeline-psc history

Kerala history -timeline
52 AD
* St Thomas Mission to Kerala
* First Christian Church at Kodungallur
68 AD
* Jews Migrates to Kerala
476 AD
* Birth of Aryabata
630 AD
* Huang Tsang visited Kerala
644 AD
* Malik Bin Dinar in Kerala to spread Islam religion
788 AD
* Birth of Sankaracharya
* Born at Kalady
820 AD
* Death of Sankaracharya
825 AD
* Beginning of Malayalam Era (August 15)
829 AD
* First Mamankam
* Celebrated once in 12 years at Thirunavaya
830 AD
* Vazhappalli Sasanam
849 AD
* Tasirappalli Sasanam
1292 AD
* Marco Polo visited Kerala
1295 AD
* Kozhikkode city established
1341 AD
* Floods in Periyar
1342 AD
* Ibn Batuta at Ezhimala
1440 AD
* Nocolo Conti visited Kerala
1498 AD
* Vasco-da Gama reached Calicut (May 17)
* He came in the ship St.Gabriel


1-Vedic Literature is known to be written between 1000 to 600 BC. Veda means to know or to get knowledge.
2. Arya means Foreigner (ary in Russian language is outsider or unknown). Aryas were originally from south Russia as per Brandastine.
3. Vedic Hymns or Types of Veda: Rig-Veda, Yajurveda, Samveda, Atharvaveda
4. Rig veda is a collection of praise of Gods or Devtas. Indra was the god of Rig-Veda.
5. Samveda is a collection of melodies
6. Atharveda describes beliefs and superstitions
7. Yajurveda is of two types : Shukla Yajurveda & Krishna Yajurveda
8. There are 6 vedangas : siksha, Kalpa, Vyakarna, Nirukt, Jyotish, Chhanda
9. Siksha vedanga is related to Phonetic Education. 
10. Kalpa Vedanga is related to Rituals
11. Vyakarna Vedanga is related to Grammar 
12. Nirukt Vedanga is related to Etymology
13. Chhanda is related to Metrics
14. Jyotish is related to Astrology
15. There are 4 kalpsutra : Sharutan Sutra, Grih Sutra , Dharma Sutra, and Sholva Sutra,

ugc & hsst history-SANSKRIT SCHOLARS



1-Bhaṭṭikāvya or "Bhatti's Poem" is one of the boldest experiments in classical literature: written in Sanskrit in the 7th century CE, in the formal genre of "great poem" (mahākāvya) it incorprates two of the most powerful Sanskrit traditions, the Ramayana and Panini's grammar, and several other minor ones, in one rich mix of science and art, both as a poetic retelling of the adventures of Rama and a compendium of examples of grammar and rhetoric.As literature, it stands comparison with the best of Sanskrit poetry.
2-Pāṇini was an Ancient Indian Sanskrit grammarian from Pushkalavati, Gandhara (fl. 4th century BCE.He is known for his Sanskrit grammar, particularly for his formulation of the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology in the grammar known as Ashtadhyayi (Aṣṭādhyāyī, meaning "eight chapters"), the foundational text of the grammatical branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of Vedic religion.
3-The work of the very early Indian grammarians has been lost; for example, the work of Sakatayana (roughly 8th c. BCE) is known only from cryptic references by Yaska (ca. 6th-5th c. BCE) and Panini. One of the views of Sakatayana that was to prove controversial in coming centuries was that most nouns are etymologically derivable from verbs.

INDIA-facts-INDIA-PSC points-ugc

INDIA-facts-INDIA-PSC points
1-India never invaded any country in her last 100000 years of history.
2-When many cultures were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization)
3-The name 'India' is derived from the River Indus, the valleys around which were the home of the early settlers. The Aryan worshippers referred to the river Indus as the Sindhu.
4-The Persian invaders converted it into Hindu. The name 'Hindustan' combines Sindhuand Hindu and thus refers to the land of the Hindus.
5-Chess was invented in India.
6-Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus are studies, which originated in India.
7-The 'Place Value System' and the 'Decimal System' were developed in India in 100 B.C.
8-The World's First Granite Temple is the Brihadeswara Temple at Tanjavur, TamilNadu. The shikhara of the temple is made from a single 80-tonne piece of granite. This magnificent temple was built in just five years, (between 1004 AD and 1009 AD) during the reign of Rajaraja Chola.



 1-Harappa Environment

During this period, the climate of the region was moist with humid land; dense forests grew where animals like tiger, elephants and rhinoceros roamed. The forests provided timber for brick kilns, which supplied bricks to the cities.

2-Date of Harappan Culture

This civilization belonged to the Chalcolithic period. In this age, a new metal called bronze by mixing tin and copper came to be produced. It was harder and better suited to meet the needs of the people. The better tools led to intensive cultivation. Iron was not known to the Indus Valley people. According to Sir John Marshall, the Hindus Valley Civilization may be dated between 3250 B.C. arid 2750 B.C.


The Harappan culture spread to Sindh, Gujarat. Undivided Punjab (including Harayana),Jammu, Western parts of Uttar Pradesh and Northern parts of Rajasthan (Kalibangan). The remains found in these places are similar to those found in Harappa and Mohenjo-daro.

4-Contacts with other civilizations in Harappa

The indus Valley people had overseas trade contacts with Sumeria, Babylonia and Egypt, Thus India ranks with the ancient Western cultures of Burner, Akkad, Babylon, Egypt and Assyria.

5-Planned Cities in Harappa

Mohenjo and Harappa were the planned cities. They were the two biggest cities, 600 km apart. They had similar planning, layout and technique in construction. They were probably the twin capitals. Mohenjo-daro, means ‘the mound of the dead’.
The city of Mohenjo-dato could be divided into three parts-the Citadel, the lower town arid the small huts on the outer limits of the city.