Saturday, May 14, 2011

IMPORTANT DISCOVERIES (indus cities)-ugc

(indus cities)

Year –Site- Discovered by

192I - Harappa -Dayaram Sahni
I922 -Mohenjodaro- R. D. Banerjee
I927- Sutkagendor- R. L. Staine
I93I- Chanhudaro -N. G. Majumdar
1953- Rangpur- M. Vats
I953- Kalibangan -A. Ghosh
[955-56- Ropar -Y. D. Sharma
I957- Lothal- S. R. Rao
1972-75- Surkotada- .I. Joshi
1973-74- Banwali -R. S. Bisht

Site Location Discovered by
Dholavira Rann of Kachh- (Gujarat) R. S. Bisht
Ganverivala Pakistan- Rafeeq Mugal
RakhiGarhi Jeend (Haryana) -Rafeeq Mugal

Original Home of Aryans-ugc/net

Original Home of Aryans

1-Central Asia-Max Muller
2-Tibet - Dayanand Saraswati
3-German plain -Prof. Penka
4-Pamirs -Mayor
5-Turkistan -Hurz Feld
6-Bactria -J. C. Rod
7-Steppes- Brandstein
8-Arctic Region- B.G. Tilak
9-Central India -Rajbali Pandey
10-Kashmir- L. D. Kala
11-Sapta Sindhu -A. C. Das

Rivers Mentioned in Rig Veda-psc & ugc

Rivers Mentioned in Rig Veda

Old Name     New Name
Gomati       -Gomal
Krumu       - Kurram
Kubha        -Kabul
Suvastu      -Swat
Sindhu       - Indus
Drishadvati -Ghaghar/Chitang
Satudri        -Satluj
Vipas           -Beas
Parushni      -Ravi
Asikni          -Chenab
Vitasta         -Jhelam

Words Mentioned in Rig Veda-ugc

Words Mentioned in Rig Veda
Word    Times mentioned
Om      -1028
Ashva  -315
Jana    - 275
Gau    -176
Vis     -171
Brahmana  -14
Kshatriya   -9
Yamuna    -3
Sudra        -I
Vaishya   - I
Rajya       -1
Kulpa       -I
Ganga      -I
Samudra  -I
Metals Known
Gold  -Hiranya
Iron   -Shyama (Krishna Ayas)
Copper- Ayas.

Rigvedic & later vedic Gods-ugc/net/jrf

Rigvedic & Later vedic Gods

The early Vedic religion was naturalistic. Evidently, there were neither temples nor idols. The mode of
prayer was recitation of mantras. Sacrifice was offered for Praja (children). Pasu (cattle) and Dhana (wealth)
and not for spiritual upliftment or misery.
1-250 hymns are attributed to India.
2-He was the Aryan warlord and also controlled the weather.3- Has been called Purandhar or destroyer of forts.
4-He was the proverbial Rain God (prajanya),responsible for causing rainfall.
5-He was associated with thunder and storm and bore the thunderbolt (Vajra),
with which he destroyed his He has been addressed by various names -
Ratheshtha, Jitendra, Somapa, Purandra, Vritrahan and Maghayan.


1-The cow seems to be the most important form of wealth.
2-Most wars were fought for cows.
3-The term for war in Rig Veda is Gavishthi or search for cows.
4-Duhitri is a word for daughter, which literally means one who milks cows.
5-The term Aghanya, or not to be killed has been used for cow. This indicated cow’s economic importance.
6-Primarily a military leader, the King fought for cows and not for territories
7-Guests were called Goghana, which indicates that beef was offered to them.
8-The gift made to priests usually consisted of cows and women slaves and never of land.


Administrative Officers

Purohita- Chief priest
Senani -The leader of the army.
Vrajapati -Officer who enjoyed authority over pasture ground.
Kulapas -Heads of families led by Vrajapati.
Gramini -Head of fitting hordes under Vrajapati.
Important Rituals
1-Rajasuya: The King’s influence was strengthened by rituals. He performed this sacrifice, which was supposed to confer supreme power on him.

Types of Buddhism-ugc

Types of Buddhism-ugc
 (a) Its followers believed in the original teachings of Buddha, (b) They sought individual salvation through self-discipline and meditation. (c) They did not believe in idol-worship, (d) Hinayana, like Jainism, is a religion without God, Karma taking the place of God. (e) Nirvana is regarded as the extinction of all. (f) The oldest school of Hinayana Buddhism is the Sthaviravada (Theravada in Pali) or the ‘Doctrine of the Elders’, (f) Its Sanskrit counterpart, which is more philosophical is known as Sarvastivada or the doctrine which maintains the existence of all things, physical as well as mental, (g) Gradually, from Sarvastivada or Vaibhasika branched oft another school called Sautantrika, which was more critical in outlook.

Gupta Literature-ugc & psc

Gupta Literature-ugc & psc

Author          Book
Bhasa             Svapanavasavdattam
Shudrak         Mrichchakatika
Amarkosh      Amarsimha
Iswara Krishna    Sankhya Karika
Vatsyana             Kama Sutra
Vishnu Gupta      Panchatantra
Narayan Pandit    Hitopdesha
Bhattin                 Ravan Vadha
Bhaivi                  Kiratarjunyam
Dandin                 Daskumarachanta
Aryabhatta           Aryabhattyan
Vishakha Datta    Mudura Rakshasa
Indrabhuti             nanassiddhi
Varahamihara       Panchasiddh antika.



The King

The Mauryan government was a centralised bureaucracy of which the nucleus
was the king.

The Mantri Parishad
The king was assisted by Mantri Parishad, whose members included -
(i) The Yuvaraj,= the crown prince
The Purohita,= the chief priest
The Senapati=. the commander-in-chief of the army a few other ministers.

Regional art-ugc

Regional  art-ugc

Chalukya Art
1-They developed the Deccan or Vesara style in the building of’ structural temples, which reached culmination, however, only under the Rashtrakutas
and the Hoyasalas.
2-They perfected the art of stone building, that is, stones finely joined without mortar.
3-Under then auspices, the Buddhists, Jainas and
Brahmins competed with each other in building cave temples.
4-Thought the cave frescoes began earlier, some of the finest specimens belonged to the Chalukyas. The murals that were executed on the walls dealt with not only religious themes but also with secular ones.

Friday, May 13, 2011

Sangam Literature-ugc

Sangam Literature-ugc

Sangam was a college or assembly of Tamil poets held probably under royal patronage of Pandyan kings in Madurai. According to tradition. the assembly lasted for 9990 years and was attended by 8.598 poets and 197 Pandyan kings.
1-The first Sangam was attended by Gods and legendary sages and all its works have



1-The word Veda is derived from the Sanskrit word Veda meaning, to know or
knowledge par excellence.
2-Vedic texts are divided between Sruti (based on hearing), which is distinct from
Smriti (based on memory).
3-Four Vedas and their Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the
Upanishads form a class of literature known as Sruti.

Monday, May 9, 2011

Important Historical Places in India-ugc & psc

Important Historical Places in India
Abu, Mount (Rajasthan): Hill station in Rajasthan; contains famous Dilwara Jain Temple and Training College for the Central Reserve Police.
Adam’s Bridge: Very nearly joined to India between two point’s viz. Mannar Peninsula and Dhanushkodi by a line of sand banks and rocks called Adam’s Bridge.
Adyar (Tamil Nadu): A Suburb of Chennai, headquarters of the Theosophical Society.
Afghan Church (Mumbai): It is built in 1847 known as St. John’s Church. It is dedicated to the British soldiers who died in the Sind and Afghan campaign of 1838 and 1843.
Aga Khan Palace: In Pune where Mahatma Gandhi was kept interned with his wife Kasturba Gandhi. Kasturbha died in this palace.
Agra (Uttar Pradesh): Famous for Taj Mahal, Fort and Pearl mosque. Sikandra, the tomb of Akbar, is situated here. It is also a centre of leather industry.
Ahmednagar (Maharashtra): It was founded by Ahmed Nizam Shahi. It is the district headquarters of Ahmednagar district. It is an industrial town well known for its handloom and small scale industries.

Major Sites –indus valley civilization-ugc

Major Sites –indus valley civilization

 The Great Granary measuring 1 69 ft x 3 5 feet is the largest and the most remarkable structure found at Harappa.
 So far 891 seals have been recovered from Harappa, and that  is 40% of the total number of seals belonging to  Indus Valley Civilization that have been found.
 A red sandstone naked male torso has been found,  which  shows  traces of Jainism
 Between the granary and the citadel, have also been  found a  series of circular platforms, probably for the pounding of grain
 At a lower level below the granary, platforms and the citadel were crowded one-room dwellings,  which suggest slave habitats.

Important Foreign Travellers/Envoys-ugc & psc

Important  Foreign  Travellers/Envoys-ugc & psc

1- Megasthenes  (302-298  B.C.): An ambassador of Seleucus    Nieator.  who visited the court  of
Chandragupta Maurya. He wrote an interesting book India  in  which  he  gave  a  vivid  account  of
Chandragupta Maurya’s reign.
2- Fa-Hsien (405-411  A.I).):  He came to India during the reign of Chandragupta  II  Vikiamaditya. The
object of his visit was to see the holy places of Buddhism  and to collect Buddhist  hooks  and relics. He
was the first Chinese pilgrim to visit India.
3-Hiuen-Tsang (also spelt Yuan Chwang) (630-645 A.D):
He usiied India during the reign of Harsha.  
4-1-tsing (671-695 A.D): A Chinese traveller, he visited India  in connection  with Buddhism.  His  work
Biographies  of  eminent  Monks, provides us useful information about the social, religious and cultural
life of the  people of  this country.
5-Al-Masudi (957 A.D):  An Arab traveller, he has given an  extensive account  of  India  in his work
Murujul Zahab 


1351-03-20 – Mohammed ibn-Tughluq, sultan of Delhi India, dies
1510-03-01 – Francisco d’Almeida, viceroy of India, dies in battle at about 59
1539-03-05 – Nuno da Cunha, Portuguese governor in India (b. 1487)
1605-10-15 – Abul-Fath Djalal-ud-Din, Mogol keizer of India (1556-1605), dies at 63
1627-10-28 – Djehangir/Jahangir, great mogol of India, dies
1629-04-19 – Sigismondo d’India, Italian composer
1631-06-07 – Mumtax Mahal, wife of Shah Jahan of India, her tomb (Taj Mahal)
1666-02-01 – Sjihab al-Din Sultan C Shah Djahan, mogol of India (Taj-Mahal), dies
1680-04-03 – Shivaji, founder of the Maratha Empire, India (b. 1630)
1680-04-17 – Kateri Tekakwitha, first American Indian to receive beatification (b. 1656)
1699-06-22 – Josiah Child, English Governor of the East India Company (b. 1630)
1707-02-20 – Aurangzeb, Mogul emperor of India (1658-1707), dies
1707-03-03 – Aurangzeb, Emperor of India (1658-1707), dies at 88

Historical Events

Historical Events
1311-04-24 – Gen Malik Kafur returns to Delhi after campaign in South India
1329-08-09 – Quilon the first Indian Diocese was erected by Pope John XXII and Jordanus was appointed the first Bishop
1459-05-12 – Sun City India founded by Rao Jodhpur
1497-07-08 – Vasco da Gama departs for trip to India
1498-05-20 – Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama arrives at Calcutta India
1500-03-09 – Pedro Cabral departs with 13 ships to India
1502-02-12 – Vasco da Gama sets sail from Lisbon, Portugal on his second voyage to India.


1483-02-15 – Babur, founder of Mughal dynasty in India (1526-30)
1506-04-07 – Francis Xavier, saint/Jesuit missionary to India, Malaya, & Japan
1542-10-14 – Abul-Fath Djalal-ud-Din, 3rd Mogol emperor of India (1556-1605)
1542-10-15 – Djalalud-Din Mohammed Akbar, emperor of India (1556-1605)
1569-08-31 – Djehangir/Jahangir, great mogol of India
1592-01-05 – Shah Jahan, Mughal emperor of India (1628-58), built Taj Mahal
1592-01-14 – Sjihab al-Din Sultan Choerram Sjah Djahan, leader of India
1618-11-03 – Aurangzeb, [Alamgir], Emperor of India (1658-1707)

Kerala-god’s own country

 Kerala-god’s own country

Area : 38,863 sq km
Population : 31,841,374
Capital : Thiruvananthapuram
Principal Languages : Malayalam

Kerala History –psc objective

01. Birth place of Ezhuthachan is at : Thunchanparambu in Tirur (Malappuram District)

02. Dutch East India Company was established in : A.D. 1592

03. Father of Malayalm Language : Ezhuthachan

04. Fifth & Last visit of Gandhiji was in : January 13, 1937

05. First Book in Malayalam is : Samkshepa Vedartham



When studying any topic, the goal is to make the information "stick." But the best methods for doing this will differ from topic to topic.
When you study terms (definitions) for a history exam, the best way to make the information stick is to understand the term in context, or understand how it relates to other terms and facts.

History of the Ghadar Movement-ugc history

History of the Ghadar Movement



1-Political guru of MAHATMA GANDHI. 
2-He was the leader of moderate group in the Congress Party. 
3-He played a commendable role in the imperial Legislative Council of which he was a member in 1902.
4-He founded 'The Servants of India Society' and served as President of the Indian National Congress in 1907.
5-Until Mahatma Gandhi appeared, Gopalakrishna Gokhale was the national leader of the freedom struggle.



The historical and spiritual phenomenon, Bhakti movement was initiated in the South India.It would appear that the Hindu religious leaders were apprehensive of the growing popularity of the Jains and the Buddhists. This led to the intemperate language and the determined propagandist methods adopted by the leaders of the Bhakti movements. Though the early Alvars of the 6th century, as the Vaishnavite men of the religion were called, were more tolerant, from the 7th century onwards both the Saiva Nayanmars and the Vaishnava alvars adopted an attitude of stern hostility towards Jainism and Buddhism.

Ghadr Movement-ugc history

Ghadr Movement-ugc history

Ghadr Movement was planned in cosmic proportions, which had almost taken the shape of a national awakening.After the British government decided in April 1914 to stop the deportation of political prisoners to the Andamans (and subsequently a majority of them already sent were repatriated to the Indian jails by September 1914), the revolutionary activities again flared up in 1915 onwards which were more authoritative in intensity, serious in nature and larger in dimension.