Saturday, June 25, 2011



1-He came to india as a result of the growth trade with Arabs during 9th c.
2-As a famouse arab merchant (from siraf of persia) ,Sulaiman visited keral during the period of Sthanu Ravi kulashekara in 851 AD.
3-He left a detailed account on the trade between malabar coast and arabia and china.



1-He  was a chinese buddist monk who travelled to nepal,srilanka and india to acquire Buddist scriptures between 339-412.
2-His journey is described in his important travellogue “a Record Of Buddhist Kingdomes”.
3-He is most known for his pilgrimage to lumbhini,the birth place of buddha.


Harshavardhan (606-647 AD)
1-King Harshavardhan was one of the most efficient rulers who unified the north of India into one single segment after the decline of the Gupta Empire. 

2-He ruled India for a time period of forty years. He was also known as simply Harsha.

3-His father was Prabhakar Vardhan and his brother was the king of Thanesar, Rajyavardhan.

Gautamiputra Satakarni

Gautamiputra Satakarni

1-Gautamiputra Satakarni was the famous ruler of Sattavahana dynasty, under whom the empire regained a dazzling recovery.
2-The Sattavahanas who are mentioned in the Puranas as the Andhra were the original inhabitants of Western Deccan. They however extended their sway over Eastern Deccan in the later years.
3-The founder of the Sattavahana dynasty according to Puranas was Simuka who ousted the last Kanva king Susharman from the throne and established the dominion of the Sattavahanas.

Rowlatt Act-1919

Rowlatt Act-1919

1-The Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919, indefinitely extending wartime "emergency meaures" in order to control public unrest and root out conspiracy.
2-This act effectively authorised the government to imprison without trial, any person suspected of terrorism living in the Raj .
3-Mahatma Gandhi, among other Indian leaders, was extremely critical of the Act and argued that not everyone should be punished in response to isolated political crimes.

Friday, June 24, 2011



1-Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes.

2-The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four (24) hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes
not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited."

3-Tourism is a dynamic and competitive industry that requires the ability to constantly adapt to customers' changing needs and desires, as the customers satisfaction, safety and enjoyment are particularly the focus of
tourism businesses.



Unity Women’s College Manjeri came in to existence in 1991, materialising the long cherished ambition of the public for an institution of Higher education for women in the backward area of Malappuram District. The Government of Kerala and University of Calicut accorded section to start the college, realizing the educational backwardness of the area, which is especially acute among Muslims and other backward communities.

Indian history-objective

Indian history-objective-3

1. Who among the following taught the doctrine of ‘Shunyata’ ?
(A) Nagarjuna
(B) Shankaracharya
(C) Harisena
(D) Vallabhacharya

2. Who of the following kings was an ardent follower of Jainism ?
(A) Bimbsara
(B) Mahapadma Nanda
(C) Kharavela
(D) Pulakesin II

3. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists—
List-I (Name of author)
(a) Abul Fazl
(b) Nizamuddin Ahmad
(c) Krishnadeva Raya
(d) Kalhan
List-II (Name of the book)
1. Tabqat-i-Akbari
2. Akbarnama
3. Rajatarangini
4. Amuktamalyada

Codes :
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 2 4 1 3
(B) 3 1 4 2
(C) 2 1 4 3
(D) 3 4 1 2
4. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched ?
(A) Shiekh Shihabuddin Suharwardi—Sufi Saint
(B) Chaitanya Maha Prabhu—Bhakti Saint
(C) Minhaj-us siraj—Founder of Sufi order
(D) Lalleshwari—Bhakti Saint

Indian history-objective

Indian history-objective-2

1. Which of the following is regar-ded as the real founder of portugese power in India ?
(A) Pedro Cabral
(B) Almeida
(C) Vasco da Gama
(D) Alfonso de Albuquerque

2. Of the various Europeans who came to India, Whose missio-nary activities were more impor-tant than commerce ?
(A) Dutch
(B) Portuguese
(C) Danes
(D) English

3. The battle of ‘Swali Hole’ was fought between which of the following countries ?
I. Portugal
II. Nettherland
III. France
IV. Britain
(A) I and II
(B) II and III
(C) I and IV
(D) III and IV


1. Bombay emerged as a leading port on the western coast on acc-ount of its—
(A) Immunity from Maratha invasions
(B) Natural harbour
(C) Improved administration
(D) All of the above

2. Name the state which granted the ‘Golden Farman’ to Holland to trade freely on payment of 500 ‘PAGODAS’ a year as duty was—
(A) Golcunda
(B) Bijapur
(C) Berar
(D) Ahmadnagar



ABM: Anti Ballistic Missiles
ABVP: Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad
AC: Alternating Current; Ashoka Chakra
ACU: Asian Currency Union
AD: anno Domini; in the year of Lord Christ
ADB: Asian Development Bank
ADC: Aide-de-Camp; Access Deficit Charge
ADF: Asian Development Fund
ADS: Air Defence Ship
AJT: Advanced Jet Trainer
AG: Accountant General; Adjutant General
AI: Air India
AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
AIIMS: All India Institute of Medical Sciences
AIR: All India Radio; Annual Information Report
AITUC: All India Trade Union Congress



1-Battle of Hydaspes—In 326 B.C. when Alexander, the great had to turn back from Hydaspes (Beas) when his troops refused to march into India against the Nanda Empire.

2-Battle of Kalinga—It was fought in 361 B.C. between Ashoka, the great and the king of Kalinga. The war resulted in considerable loss of life and brought misery and suffering to the people. Its impression on Ashoka was so great that he not only turned a Buddhist, but renounced war and violence.

3-1st Battle of Tarain (1191 A.D.)—Prithvi Raj defeated Mohd. Gauri.

4-2nd Battle of Tarain (1192 A.D.)—Mohd. Gauri defeated Prithvi Raj and paved the way for Muslim rule in India.

Thursday, June 23, 2011



1-Sandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, the Indian state of Kerala is blessed with unmatched natural diversity that provides immense scope for tourism.
2-Within its 38,863 square kilometres, this virtual paradise boasts a wide range of tourist attractions – from serene beaches and tropical islands to coastal lagoons and quiet backwaters, mist-clad hills stations, wildlife sanctuaries, unspoilt wilderness areas, lush evergreen forests and a rich cultural heritage with unique art forms.

Eco Tourism

 Eco Tourism

1-Ecotourism is entirely a new approach in tourism.
2-Ecotourism is a preserving travel to natural areas to appreciate the cultural and natural history of the environment ,taking care  not  to   disturb the integrity of the  ecosystem, while creating economic opportunities that make conservation and protection of natural resources advantageous tothe local people.

Tourism in India

Tourism in India
1-Tourism is the largest service industry in India, with a contribution of 6.23% to the national GDP and 8.78% of the total employment in India.
2- India witnesses more than 5 million annual foreign tourist arrivals and 562 million domestic tourism visits.

Lord Canning

1-Lord Canning (1858-62)-First Viceroy

Queen Victoria’s Proclamation and the India Act of 1858.

‘White Mutiny’ by the European troops of the EICO in 1859.

India Councils Act of 1861. Portfolio system. Withdrawl of Doctrine of Lapse..



1-Robert Clive 1757-60 AND 1765-67: Battle of Buxar- Siraj Ud doula- Dual Govt in Bengal- First Treaty of Allahbad in 1765 with Shuja ud Doula and second with Shah Alam II..First Governor of Bengal. Battle of Plassey was in 1764 and Governor was Pensitrat

2-Warren Hastings
(1772-85) First Governor-General of Bengal.
Creation of the post of Collector- Regulating Act of 1773

The Act of 1781 (it made a clear demarcation between the jurisdiction of the Governor General-in-Council and that of then Supreme Court at Calcutta).

-Pitt’s India Act of 1784.--The Rohila war (1774) and annexation of Rohilkhand by the Nawab of Oudh with help of the British.---First Maratha war (1775-82) and the Treaty of Salbai (1782).--Second Mysore war (1780-84) (First one was fought in 1766-69).--Nand Kumar episode (1775) First English translation Gita by Charles Wilkins --Foundation of the Asiatic Society of Bengal by Hastings and Sir William Jones (1784). After his return to England (1785), impeachment proceedings were started against him. After a prolonged trial (seven years), he was finally acquitted.



1.Regulating Act – Governor General of Bengal – SUPREM COURT at Calcutta – Executive Council with 4 members – Dual Government abolished

2. Pitts India Act – Board of Control – E.C. 4 to 3 – Bombay and Madras subordinate to Bengal

3.1793 Charter Act
–Trade Monopoly extended for 20 years – Local Government – Higher Post for Europeans

4. Charter Act 1813
– Monopoly ended – China Opium and Tea for 20 years – Education Advance – Christian Missionary to India

5. Charter Act 1833
– Governor General of India – Law Member Macaulay – Trade Monopoly in China Ended– Governor General can frame Law – Patronage system abolished...


                 “ POWER POINT”

1-Founded by 1885 by A.O. Hume.
2-Venue of 1st Session – Gokul Tejpal Sanskrit School of Bombay.
3-First President – W.C. Banerjee.
4-First Women President – Annie Besant (1917 Calcutta).
5-First Indian Women President – Sarojini Naidu.(1925, Kanpur)
6-First English President – George Yule 7-First Muslim President – Badaruddin Tayabji.
8-Women President – Annie Besant (1917), Sarojini Naidu (1925) and Nalin Sengupta.
9-Thrice President (Maximum times) – Dadabhi Naoroji (1886,1893,1906), J.L. Nehru (1929, 1936, 1937).

Wednesday, June 22, 2011

Pliny and natural history

Pliny and natural history

Pliny the elder was a roman naturalist historian ,Philosopher and historian and army commander of early roman empire.He spend his time for studying and writing and investigating natural and geographic phenomenon.He wrote one of the earliest encyclopedia of the world “natural history”.It was published in 77 -79 AD.It is one of the largest single works to have survived from the roman empire to the modern day...

Accouts of Megasthanes

Accouts of Megasthanes(BC 350-290)

**Megasthanes was agreek ambassider to the court of chandra guptha maurya.Actually he was a greek writer who compossed the famouse work entitled INDICA,which stands as an important source material for the re-construction of the history of mouryan empire,.He was born in Asiaminor(modern turkey).He came to india as the ambassider of selucus I of syria to the court of sandracottus(chandra guptha) in pataliputra.Exact date of his empassy is unknown but it is definetly before 288 BC.Infact,he is the first forieng ambassidor to be mentioned in the indian history.

Tuesday, June 21, 2011



1-An ancient Greek traveler and historian, who explored Europe (Greece, Macedonia), Asia (Persian Empire, Babylon, Susa, Ecbatana), Africa: Egypt, Elephantine; by sea to Tyre and Libya; and back to the Black Sea (Crimea and Colchians’ land), and Syrian coast up to Egypt.
2-"Father of History" in Western culture: wrote about people, cities and way of life.
3-He was the first to collect his materials systematically, test their accuracy and arrange them in a well-constructed and vivid narrative, that he read during Olympic Games
4=Sometimes made mistakes: wrote that Alps were a river..



1-Southern India, especially the Malabar Coast and the kingdom ofVijayanagara, received many European visitors during the transition from the middle ages to modern times. Descriptions of Southern India by foreign writers and travellers are often both instructive and interesting.

2-Their travel narratives and chronicles provide a unique insight into the encounter between Europeans and a non-Christian, non-Muslim civilization, which they neither wished to ignore nor were able to dominate.

3-We have a significant number of non-European narratives, which makes it possible to develop a comparative analysis of travellers’ attitudes that goes beyond sociological and national categories exclusively related to Europe.

4-Obviously, of all non-Europeans, Muslim writers provide the sources better suited for a systematic comparison with western descriptions of South India.

5-The rise of Vijayanagara in the 14th century and the flowering of the Renaissance in Europe at about the same time drew many foreigners toIndia.

6-An interesting narrative is the personal account of a journey to Vijayanagara undertaken in 1443 by the Persian ambassador Kamal-ud-Din Abdur Razzak ibn Ishaq Samarqandi (1413-1482), who was at the service of the Timurid ruler Shah Rukh since 1437. His father Jalal-ud-Din Ishaq was the qazi and imam of the Shah Rukh's court in Heart. 

Pattini as a form of protest

      *Pattini or starvation ,a peculiar form of protest among the brahmins in medieval kerala emerged as a strike against the naduvazhies when other moderate modes of protest not yielded.pattini means immediate fasting when brhmin demand was not responded by naduvazhi without taking food.he will immerse in homa activities.

Monday, June 20, 2011

Lord Ripon (1880-84)

Lord Ripon (1880-84)

1-First Factory Act of 1881.
2-First Census taken in India (1881)-254 millions.
3-Introduction of Local Self-Government in 1882.
4-Repeal of the Vernacular Press Act in 1882.
5-Division of the finances of the center in 1882.

Lord Dalhousie (1848-56)

Lord Dalhousie (1848-56)

1-Second Sikh war (1848-49) and annexation of the Punjab.
2-Second Burmesewar (1852) and annexation of Lower Burma.
3-Charter Act of 1853.
4-Application of the Doctrine of Lapse and annexation of Satara (1848), Sambalpur (1849), Jhansi (1853) Nagpur (1854), etc.

Treaty of Portsmouth

Treaty of Portsmouth

The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War. It was signed on 5 September 1905 after negotiations at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard near Portsmouth, New Hampshire in the United States.

The Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland and II of Ireland) in1688 by a union of Parliamentarians with an invading army led by the Dutchstadt holder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange) who, as a result, ascended the English throne as William III of England.