1-Orientalism is a term refers to the quality ,mannarism or custom specific to or characteristic of the orient.It is a scholarly knowledge of asian cultures,language and people.It is a historic term applied to a category of subject matter refering to the depiction of the near east by the western artists,particularly in the 19th century.
1-Warren Hastings, the first governor-general of India from 1773 to 1785 had a respectful view of India and wanted the Englishmen to learn the language and culture and blend in.
2-Hastings founded the Calcutta Madrassah for training Muslims in Islamic Law and Jonathan Duncan founded the Sanskrit College in Benares for the preservation and cultivation of the Hindu laws, literature and religion.
1-Ma HuanChinese traveller, was one of the four officials who accompanied Zheng He (Cheng Ho) during his seven voyages into the Indian Ocean (called Western Ocean by the Chinese) between AD 1405 and 1433.
2-He was a well known figure both in China and elsewhere.
3-Two of his companions wrote travelogues which are known in English translation asThe Overall Survey of the Star Raft(1436)by Fei Xin (fei hsin), andRecords of Foreign Countries in the Western Ocean(1434) by Gong Zhen (Kung Chen). The latter work is almost identical with Ma Huan's account.