The FUGGER family was a historically prominent group of European bankers, members of the fifteenth and sixteenth-century mercantile patriciate of Augsburg, international mercantile bankers, and venture capitalists like the Welser and the Höchstetter families. This banking family replaced the family known as the Mediciwho influenced all of Europe during the Renaissance. The Fuggers took over many of the Medici assets as well as their political power and influence
Robert Owen is considered one of the original socialists. His ideas about cooperation and workers' rights laid the foundation for socialist principles and trade unions and influenced thinkers such as Karl Marx and Frederick Engels.
Robert Owen was born in Newtown, Wales, on May 14, 1771, the son of a shopkeeper. Though he left school at the age of 9, he was precocious and learned business principles rapidly in London and Manchester. By 18 he was manager of one of Manchester's largest cotton mills. In 1799 he purchased the mills at New Lanark, Scotland; they became famous for fine work produced with high regard for the well-being of the approximately 2,000 employees, of whom several hundred were poor children.
2-In contrast to George Whitefield's Calvinism, Wesley embraced theArminiandoctrines that were dominant in the 18th-century Church of England. Methodism in both forms was a highly successfulevangelicalmovement in the United Kingdom, which encouraged people to experienceJesus Christpersonally.
Like Charisma nd Trade Unionism,Co-operation also was started as a working class movement.The frst experimentation in cooperation were made by Robert Owen in london when the workers failed to get the help of the government.Following Owen’s example,some Lancashire weavers opened a little shore at Rochdale in 1844.They realized that self help was the best and hence cooperated with one another for the sake of mutual help.
1-Reform Act of 1832 was anAct of British Parliament ,that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system ofEnglandandWales. According to its preamble, the act was designed to "take effectual Measures for correcting divers Abuses that have long prevailed in the Choice of Members to serve in theCommons House of Parliament."
2-Calls for reform had been mooted long before 1832, but perennially without success. The Act which finally succeeded was proposed by theWhigsled by thePrime MinisterLord Grey. It met with significant opposition from the Pittite factions in Parliament that had governed the country for so long .
1-William Ewart Gladstone(1809 –1898) was a BritishLiberalstatesman. In a career lasting over sixty years, he served asPrime Ministerfour separate times (1868–1874, 1880–1885, February–July 1886 and 1892–1894), more than any other person.
2-Gladstone was also Britain's oldest Prime Minister, 84 years old when he resigned for the last time. He had also served asChancellor of the Exchequerfour times (1853–1855, 1859–1866, 1873–1874, and 1880–1882).
Thefactory systemwas a method ofmanufacturingfirst adopted inEnglandat the beginning of theIndustrial Revolutionin the 1750s and later spread throughout the world.Industrialisation led to the creation of the factories. Arguably the first wasJohn Lombe'swater-powered silk millatDerby, operational by 1721. However, the rise of the factory came somewhat later when cotton spinning was mechanised. The factory system was largely responsible for the rise of the moderncity, as large numbers of workers migrated into the cities in search of employment in the factories.
Chartists were largely unsuccessful at convincing British Parliament to reform the voting system of the mid-19th century; however, this movement caught the interest of the working class. The working class interest in politics from that point on aided later suffrage movements.