Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Donation of Constantine

Donation of Constantine  
1-The Donation of Constantine  is a forged Roman imperial decree by which the emperor Constantine I supposedly transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the pope.
2-During the Middle Ages, the document was often cited in support of the Roman Church's claims to spiritual and earthly authority. 
3-Italian humanist Lorenzo Valla is credited with first exposing the forgery with solid philological arguments, although doubts on the document's authenticity had already been cast by this time

Crossing of Rubicon river

Crossing of Rubicon river

1-The Rubicon is a shallow river in northeastern Italy, about 80 kilometres long, running from the Apennine Mountains to the Adriatic Sea through the southern Emilia-Romagna region, between the towns of Rimini and Cesena.
2-The Latin word rubico comes from the adjective "rubeus", meaning "red". The river was so named because its waters are colored red by mud deposits.
3-The idiom "Crossing the Rubicon" means to pass a point of no return, and refers to Julius Caesar's army'scrossing of the river in 49 BC, which was considered an act of insurrection.

Abhinash Chandra Bhattacharya

Dr Abhinash Chandra Bhattacharya 

1-Dr Abhinash Chandra Bhattacharya was an radical Indian nationalist noted for his role in the Indo-German Conspiracy of World War I. Born in Tripura India, Bhattacharya in his youth became involved with the works of the Anushilan Samiti.
2-In 1910, Abhinash Bhattacharya proceeded to Germany to qualify as a Chemist. During his stay in the country, Bhattacharya again became involved in the Indian nationalist movement there, reviving old acquaintances from his Anushilan days.

MPT Acharya

MPT Acharya 
1-MPT Acharya (1887–1951) was an Indian nationalist, a key member of India House, and one of the founding members of the Communist Party of India.
2-In a long political and activist life, Acharya was at various times associated with India House in London and the Hindu-German Conspiracy during World War I when, as a key functionary of the Berlin Committee, he along with Har Dayal sought to establish the Indian National Volunteer Corps with Indian prisoners of war from the battlefields ofMesopotamia and Europe.