Monday, October 15, 2012



 One of the two systems of Hindu family law regulating
the division of land and inheritance since the early medieval period. According to the dayabhaga school, it was only on the death of father that a son can claim rights to the property.

One of the ports in the Indus delta along the west coast that is frequently referred to in Arab geographers’ accounts. In 1182–1183, it was ruled by Sumera princes of Ismaili leanings who were attacked and beaten by Mu‘izz al-Din Muhammad Ghauri.



 A hospice or monastery where Sufis belonging to a particular
order would reside or assemble. The organization of a khanqah
was headed by a senior member of the order authorized by his
preceptor to do so. The expenses of the organization, which often included
a mosque, residential spaces, and a free kitchen, would ordinarily
be met from voluntary contributions and occasionally also
from income yielded by land grants made by rulers or nobles.

The land tax collected in an Islamic state. In the Delhi sultanate,
it was often called kharaj-i jiziya, denoting that the land tax
was treated as the equivalent to the jiziya prescribed for non-Muslim
subjects. ‘Ala al-Din Khalji (1296–1316) collected the kharaj at the
rate of one half of the produce by measurement of land under cultivation
and fixation of yield per standard unit (wafa’-i biswa).

IN‘AM or Inam


Any payment in the Delhi sultanate, and also in the successor states, not linked to military obligation, often in the form of a revenuefree grant, was called in‘am. Under the Lodi dynasty, Hindu dignitaries were remunerated for their piety and cooperation with the administration through in‘am grants. In‘am grants, like other similar  grants, were ordinarily neither transferable nor resumable, but the
sultan had a right to cancel them. Succession to a grant was to be regulated by the order of the sultan rather than the rules of shariah.

Nawak and Mandahars

A crossbow that Muslim invaders frequently used in India in the 13th and 14th centuries. The term originally denoted a tabular attachment but subsequently came to be applied to the entire weapon. Malik Kafur is reported to have used nawaks with great effect during his campaigns in south India.

A warrior tribe settled in Kaithal and the surrounding
tract during the 13th century. In late 1280, Jalal al-Din Khalji (later98 • MAITHILI Jalal al-Din Firuz Khalji), then muqti‘ of Kaithal, was wounded while conducting operations against the Mandahars. The Mandahars continued to defy the central authority until the beginning of 16th century.

HOW TO USE Primary Sources

HOW TO USE Primary Sources
  • How to read primary sources
  • Primary sources in the classroom
  • Interpretation: The problem of worldview
  • Sensitive Content: The problem of offensive content
  • Worksheets for analyzing primary sources

How to read primary sources
Primary sources  are the main focus and the real story behind the broader topic.


Structuralism is the stance that, without any further external objective reference, the objective nature of reality is rooted in binary oppositions in language. Language filters everything, and the signifier is an arbitrary but regulated noise or squiggle that stands for something else, the signified. The signified is a concept, and these concepts can be worked into contrasts. Something is defined by the not-something, which could well be something else, but related by the completely negative relationship. X is not not-X. This binary pattern is obviously mathematical, it is then deemed to be in the mind, a kind of super language before a particular language gets going, and thus there is a solid link between the mind and culture, between the psyche and the collective conscious rooted in communication.

post colonial history

Understanding the colonial period now from a fully revised perspective
The analysis of colonies in the process of and after their liberation.
These are different if connected.
The first is to understand now how imperialists and colonialists created the "Other" (Green, Troup, 1999, 280; see Said) based on evolutionary superiority of usually Protestant Christian or secularised people over the less developed and orientals, the strange alien over whom superior rationalised government was produced. This was the language of alterity of anthropologists (Rapport, Overing, 2000, 9-10, and see 98). Classification by academics produced a primitivism or exoticism of the lowest status peoples in Europe related to a past time (neolithic and mediaeval) contained within geographical space (Rapport, Overing, 2000, 100, 13). This was a dominant ideology justifying control, although there was a variety of academic thought, and it was used for legitimacy within governance.


Oral history is clearly very attractive to a great many people. It requires accessible technology available for some decades now of a simple recorder and tape. The person interviewed goes back in time to recall childhood, and so it seems possible to stretch back into days lost when things were done differently.


Ethnohistory is that type of history which comes closest to social anthropology. It began in the 1950s in the United States as a means of understanding the history of American Indians from the inside, as it were, rather than being judged as external objects of study. Most history relies on documents in Western society fashion, but ethnohistory needs other experiential insights like folklore, stories handed down, maps, artwork and objects, and it looks at archaeology, anthropology and linguistics (Green, Troup, 1999, 175).


Gender history starts with the distinction made between gender and sex, in that gender adds on to sex expectations of cultural propriety and power relationships (see Green, Troup, 1999, 253). These are made, not given (sex is a given), and so they have a maker as well as receiver.


Empiricism remains one of the most influential methods of doing history because it focuses on method. It is about accuracy with primary sources, close work that extracts the evidence and produces an account of the past as close to the evidence as possible. Many footnotes or references should be expected. The sources should be generated at the time the history work is focusing upon.


History Extension


Reynolds Henry               Why Weren’t We Told?
Hobsbawn, Eric                On History
Evanx, Richard J              In Defence of History
Becher, Carl J                  ‘What are Historical Facts?’
Vincent, John                   An Intelligent Person’s Guide to History
Jenkins, Keith                  What is History
Bailyn, Bernard                Two Encounters
Summers, Anne                Damned Whores and God’s Police
Dixson, Miriam                The Real Matilda
Windschuttle, Keith         The Killing of History